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Обучение чтению литературы на английском языке по специальности «Ракетная и импульсная техника»

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Учебно-методическое пособие состоит из трех модульных блоков, в каждый из которых включены три технических текста и лексико-грамматические упражнения на развитие и закрепление навыков понимания, осмысления и перевода оригинальных публикаций по изучаемой тематике, а также умения устного профессионального общения. Для студентов старших курсов МГТУ им. Н.Э. Баумана, обучающихся по специальности «Ракетная и импульсная техника».
Самсонова, Л. С. Обучение чтению литературы на английском языке по специальности «Ракетная и импульсная техника» : учебно-методическое пособие / Л. С. Самсонова, А. И. Скубриева. - Москва : Изд-во МГТУ им. Баумана, 2011. - 40 с. - Текст : электронный. - URL: https://znanium.ru/catalog/product/2160697 (дата обращения: 23.07.2024). – Режим доступа: по подписке.
Фрагмент текстового слоя документа размещен для индексирующих роботов. Для полноценной работы с документом, пожалуйста, перейдите в ридер.
Московский государственный технический университет
имени Н.Э. Баумана

Л.С. Самсонова, А.И. Скубриева

ОБУЧЕНИЕ ЧТЕНИЮ
ЛИТЕРАТУРЫ НА АНГЛИЙСКОМ ЯЗЫКЕ
ПО СПЕЦИАЛЬНОСТИ
«РАКЕТНАЯ И ИМПУЛЬСНАЯ ТЕХНИКА»

Учебнометодическое пособие

М о с к в а
Издательство МГТУ им. Н.Э. Баумана
2011

УДК 802.0
ББК 81.2 Англ.923
С17

Рецензент З.А. Заболотская

Самсонова Л.С.
С49
Обучение чтению литературы на английском языке по специальности «Ракетная и импульсная техника» : учеб.метод.
пособие / Л.С. Самсонова, А.И. Скубриева. — М. : Издво
МГТУ им. Н.Э. Баумана, 2011. —  40 с. : ил.

Учебнометодическое пособие состоит из трех модульных блоков,
в каждый из которых включены три технических текста и лексикограмматические упражнения на развитие и закрепление навыков понимания, осмысления и перевода оригинальных публикаций по изучаемой
тематике, а также умения устного профессионального общения.
Для студентов старших курсов МГТУ им. Н.Э. Баумана, обучающихся по специальности «Ракетная и импульсная техника».

УДК 802.0
ББК 81.2 Англ.923

© МГТУ им. Н.Э. Баумана, 2011

Учебное издание
Самсонова Лидия Сергеевна
Скубриева Алла Ивановна

ОБУЧЕНИЕ ЧТЕНИЮ ЛИТЕРАТУРЫ
НА АНГЛИЙСКОМ ЯЗЫКЕ ПО СПЕЦИАЛЬНОСТИ
«РАКЕТНАЯ И ИМПУЛЬСНАЯ ТЕХНИКА»

Корректор М.А. Василевская
Компьютерная верстка И.Д. Звягинцевой

Подписано в печать 20.12.2010. Формат 60х84/16.
Усл. печ. л. 2,33. Тираж 100 экз. Изд. № 33. Заказ

Издательство МГТУ им. Н.Э. Баумана.
Типография МГТУ им. Н.Э. Баумана.
105005, Москва, 2я Бауманская ул., 5.

ПРЕДИСЛОВИЕ

Учебнометодическое пособие, состоящее из трех модульных
блоков и двух дополнительных текстов, содержит оригинальные тексты (характеризующиеся постепенным нарастанием сложности
содержания), взятые из английских и американских научнотехнических периодических изданий. Помимо текстов в пособие входят
разнообразные лексикограмматические упражнения на отработку
конструкций, характерных для языка научнотехнической литературы, а также упражнения, направленные на развитие навыков говорения и вербального взаимодействия с зарубежными коллегами;
словари, содержащие активную лексику и специальную терминологию. Заключительные коммуникативные задания, имеющиеся
в каждом модуле, помогут студентам готовить презентации, выступать с сообщениями, участвовать в обсуждениях, отстаивать свои
позиции в научных дискуссиях.
Материал, представленный в пособии, может использоваться студентами как во время аудиторных занятий под руководством преподавателя, так и для самостоятельной работы.
Пособие предназначено для студентов старших курсов МГТУ
им. Н.Э. Баумана, обучающихся по специальности «Ракетная и импульсная техника».

UNIT I
Guns and Armor

1. Translate the following sentences paying attention to the Participles.
1. The rocket in its simplest form is a chamber enclosing a gas under
pressure. 2. Our lab spent two weeks working on the project. 3. The big
120 mm and 125 mm guns introduced by Russia and Britain in the 1970s
became common in the 1980s. 4. The total number of AK47s (Avtomat
Kalashnikova47) made worldwide during the last 50 years is estimated at
over 90 million. 5. Knowing three important scientific principles now
called Newton’s Laws of Motion, engineers have been able to construct
modern giant rockets. 6. Objects in motion will stay in motion in a straight
line unless acted upon by an unbalanced force. 7. Newton’s second law of
motion is especially useful when designing efficient rockets. 8. Force is the
pressure created by the controlled explosion taking place inside the rocket’s
engines. 9. Newton’s second law of motion can be restated in the following
way: the greater the mass of the rocket fuel burned, and the faster the gas
produced can escape the engine, the greater the thrust of the rocket.

2. Translate the following sentences paying attention to different
meanings of “as” and its combinations.
1. Kalashnikov is well known worldwide as a designer of his legendary
AK. 2. Moving through the air causes friction, or as scientists call it, drag.
As a result rockets work better in space than they do it in air. As the exhaust
gas leaves the rocket engine, it must push away the surrounding air, this
uses up some of energy of the rocket. 3. Acceleration of the rocket has to
increase as its mass decreases. That is why a rocket starts off moving slowly
and goes faster and faster as it climbs into space. 4. Our laboratory needs
a metal as heavy as lead. 5. It is not as difficult as the students think it is.
6. No one else drives as fast as John. 7. My friend talks as if he knew all
about nanotechnology. 8. Their team will travel by night as well as by day.
9. The lecturer explained the theory, and practice as well. 10. To attain
space flight speeds, the engine must burn a large mass of fuel and push the
resulting gas out of the engine as rapidly as possible. 11. The spacecraft will
travel in a straight line when it is very far from any large gravity source such
as Earth or the other planets and their moons.

3. Translate the following sentences with the word “time”.
1. Force is equal to mass times acceleration. 2. However, new times
call for more sophisticated armaments. 3. Carbon nanotubes are 20 times

stronger than steel and at the same time they are 10 times lighter. 4. At
present the best composites have 3 to 4 times the strength of steel. 5. Hand
your test papers to the examiner two at a time.

4. Translate the following sentences paying attention to the use of “the
former, the latter”.
1. As contrasted with the former, the latter means the second of two
things or persons already mentioned. 2. Of these two devices the former is
more efficient than the latter. 3. Of these alternatives the specialists prefer
the former, i.e. the first mentioned of two. 4. Artillery fire is more effective
if a large number of units is concentrated on single targets so that the latter
could be struck immediately and by as many shells as possible in as short
a time as possible.

5. Memorize the following words and word combinations:
to rate – определять, устанавливать, оценивать
to match – подходить, соответствовать
commonly – обычно
common – общепринятый, распространенный
rather than – скорее, предпочтительнее, охотнее, лучше, а не
along with – вместе, наряду с
to grip – схватывать, сжать
pattern – структура, форма
obsolete – вышедший из строя, устаревший
instead – вместо, взамен
builtin – встроенный
to arm – вооружаться, взводить
time – раз
one at a time – по одному
many times – многократно
bin – бункер
spare – запасной
to shoot – стрелять
to pull – вытягивать, тянуть
to misfire – промахнуться, не попасть в цель

6A. Look through Text 1A and find the answer for the question: “What
countries design guns that are most commonly used worldwide?”

6B. Read and translate the text.

Text 1A
Modern Weaponry

Size Ratings

Modern guns are rated by their bore diameter (the diameter of the
inside of the barrel, which matches the diameter of the shell or bullet).
Rifles are commonly 5.56 mm or 7.62 mm, machineguns are 7.62 mm to
14.5 mm, automatic cannons are 20 mm to 30 mm, light cannons are
75 mm to 100 mm, heavy cannons are 105 mm to 125 mm, and artillery is
152 mm to 203 mm.
Some guns are still rated in “calibers”. This is the bore diameter as
measured in inches, rather than millimeters. A “caliber.50” weapon is
0.5" wide, or 12.7 mm.

Heavy Cannons

Heavy cannons are the classic weapons of tanks and artillery. In WWII
some tanks carried low velocity artillerytype cannons, while others had
higher velocity armor piercing cannons. The latter were invariably more
effective. All modern tanks now use large caliber, high velocity guns. Sizes:
Light tanks and heavy armored cars commonly use 75 mm or 90 mm guns,
along with old medium tanks from the 1950s. Medium tanks of the 1960s
and 70s used 100 mm, 105 mm and 115 mm guns. The big 120 mm and
125 mm guns were introduced by Britain and Russia in the 1970s, then
became common in the 1980s.

Rifled Guns

These weapons are designed like traditional rifles: they have barrel
grooves that “grip” the base of a shell. The grooves have a spiral pattern,
causing the shell to rotate as it moves down the barrel. This rotation gives
the shell stability in flight, which improves accuracy. The main rifled guns
used today are British and Russian designs. The British 105 mm gun was
standardized for NATO in the 1960s and is still commonly found. The
other common rifled weapon is the Russian 100 mm used in the now
obsolete T55 series.

Smoothbore Guns

These weapons have no grooves in the barrel. Instead, the ammunition
has builtin fins that provide stability in flight. The USSR was the first to
popularize this type of weapon, making smoothbores their standard tank
gun in the 1960s.
There are three main smoothbore weapons used today. The German
Rheinmetall 120 mm smoothbore is used by the Leopard 2 and the Ml Al,
with a variant planned for the new French Leclerc. An older Russian
115 mm smoothbore is used in T62s. The newer Russian 125 mm
smoothbore arms the T64, T72, T74 and T80. It is finding its way
abroad in the T72.

AutoCannons

Large cannons must be loaded one shell at a time. Loading can take 5 to
10 seconds depending on the size of shell and the position of the
ammunition and loader in relation to the breech, for a rate of fire of 6 to
12 rounds a minute.
Autocannons reload automatically, using a belt or clip like a machinegun. This increases their rate of fire to hundreds of rounds per minute. Of
course, autocannons are limited to smaller sizes, and even then the loading
mechanisms and ammunition bins can be huge. For example, the American
M163A2 PIVADS has a sixbarrelled 20 mm autocannon mounted on its
roof. It has an 1100round linkless belt feed attached to the gun, and a spare
1000round belt carried inside. This massive amount of ammo is sufficient
for just 42 seconds of firing against aircraft, since in its designed role as AA
gun the 20 mm shoots 3000 rounds per minute!

Chain Guns

Traditional autocannons reload from the recoil or blowback of the
previous round, just like a machinegun. And just like a machinegun, if a
round is a dud or misfires, there isn’t sufficient recoil or gas to clear the
shell and reload the gun, causing a jam. The “chain gun” was created to
solve this problem. Chain guns use a separate electric motor to pull the
ammunition belt through the gun breech. If a shell doesn’t fire, no problem,
the motor just pulls that round out and pulls a new one in. Jams are still
possible, but the frequency is greatly reduced. Chain guns cannot fire as
fast as traditional automatic weapons, but the lower rate of fire is sometimes

an advantage in conserving ammo. The US Army uses a 25 mm Chain
Gun in the turret of its M2 and M3 vehicles, and a 30 mm gun on its AH64A attack helicopter.
4000

6C. Try to memorize as many key terms as possible:
bore – канал ствола, калибр оружия
smoothbore – гладкоствольный (об оружии)
barrel – ствол, дуло (оружия)
rate of fire – скорострельность
bullet – пуля
machinegun – пулемет
armorpiercing – бронебойный
rifle – нарез, винтовка
rifledgun – нарезное орудие
groove – нарез, паз, вырез
fin – стабилизатор
ammunition – боеприпасы
breech – казенная часть ствола
clip – захват, зажим, звено пулеметной ленты
shell – снаряд
to clear – разрядить оружие, удалить снаряд
link – звено
linkless belt – патронная лента без звеньев
bin – бункер
round – выстрел, комплект выстрела, патрон, снаряд
dud – неразорвавшийся снаряд
recoil = blowback – откат, отдача
jam – заклинивание
chain gun – автоматическая скорострельная авиационная пушка
(с цепным электроприводом)
turret – башня
to load – зарядить
loader – заряжающий
cannon – артиллерийское орудие
automatic cannon – малокалиберная автоматическая пушка
feed – подача (патронов)
belt feed – ленточная подача патронов
weapon – оружие, вооружение

7. Answer the following questions.
1. What types of guns do you know? 2. What does the term “caliber”
mean? 3. Is there any difference in loading large cannons and auto cannon?
What is it? 4. Which of the guns is most efficient? Why? 5. What is the
principal difference of smoothbore guns from other types of guns? 6. When
are smoothbore guns commonly used? 7. How does the chain gun operate?
8. Is a chain gun more efficient than a traditional automatic weapon? What
makes it more efficient?

8A. Replace the prepositional phrases by word combinations.
For example:
the grooves of (in) the barrel → the barrel grooves;
the stability of flight → the flight stability;
the stability of a shell in flight → the shell flight stability;
a round which is capable of piercing armor → an armourpiercing round;
the firing range which is preferred → the preferred firing range;
a 20 mm autocannon equipped with six barrels → a sixbarrelled 20 mm
autocannon.

The variations of temperature →; the bins of (with) ammunition →;
the tube of a gun →; the support by means of fire →; the strength of the
armour of the tank →.

8B. Translate the following word combinations.
Ammunition belt; hot expanding gas; heavy armored cars; gun breech
strength; enemy rocket launchers; infantry antiarmor weapon; low velocity
artillerytype cannon; largecaliber high velocity guns; modern high
velocity tank guns; an 1100round linkless belt feed.

9A. Translate the following words paying attention to suffixes.
Simple, simplicity, simplify, simplification; military, militarist,
militarism; effect, effective, effectiveness; numerical, numerous, numerate,
numeration; common, commonly, commonality; rely, reliable, reliability;
possible, possibility; measure, measurable, measurably, measurement;
previous, previously, prevision; extreme, extremely, extremist, extremity;
total, totally, totality; legend, legendary; form, formal, formality, formation;
product, production, productivity, productive; introduce, introduction,
introductory.

9B. Use the words on the right to form a word that fits in the space.
Use a proper suffix.
The Kalashnikov assault rifle, also known under
the (1) … name of AK, is the most prolific small
arm of the 2nd half of the XX century. It had been
and still is (in more or less modified (2) …)
manufactured in dozens of countries and used in
hundreds of conflicts since its (3) … . The (4) …
number of AKtype rifles made worldwide during
the last 50 years is estimated at over 90 million. This
is a true (5) … weapon known for its (6) …
ruggedness, (7) … of operation and maintenance,
unsurpassed (8) … even in the worst conditions (9)
… and suitability for mass (10) … . It is used not only
as a (11) … weapon, but also as a basis for (12) …
sporting civilian rifles and shotguns. The AK
incorporated many of (13) … known features and
solutions, combined in the most (14) … way. The
(15) .., however, depends on the criteria used to
(16) … it.

9C. Translate the above text without a dictionary.

10A. Read and translate Text 1B. The words to help you:
to degrade – ослаблять, снижать, разрушать
to sneak up – подкрадываться, подбираться
vulnerable – уязвимый
to wobble – колебаться, вихлять, вилять
to miss – промахиваться, не достигать цели
to prefer – предпочитать
range – расстояние, дальность, диапазон
escort – охрана, конвой, прикрытие
to lack – не иметь, испытывать недостаток
portable – переносной, передвижной
to penetrate – проникать вовнутрь, проходить сквозь
to eliminate – устранять, исключать
to button up – закрыть(ся), запереть(ся)
team – команда; экипаж; группа (боевая); бригада

commonly

formal
introduce
totality
legend
extremely, simple
reliable, possibility
product, militarist
numerical
previous
effect, effective
measurement

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