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Синтаксис английского языка в таблицах

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Пособие содержит таблицы по различным типам предложений, разработанный к ним банк упражнений и отрывки художественной прозы для анализа и перевода. Оно обеспечивает развитие грамматических умений и формирует систему знаний по синтаксису английского языка. Пособие предназначено для студентов 4-го курса, изучающих английский язык как первый иностранный, обучающихся по направлениям подготовки 41.03.01 «Зарубежное регионоведение» (Регионоведение по странам Западной Европы), 45.03.02 «Лингвистика» (Перевод и переводоведение), 45.03.02 «Лингвистика» (Теория и методика преподавания иностранных языков и культур). Рекомендовано для слушателей программ дополнительного профессионального образования соответствующего направления подготовки.
Орлова, Н. В. Синтаксис английского языка в таблицах : учебное пособие / Н. В. Орлова, И. С. Николаенко, В. А. Жукатинская. - Липецк : ЛГПУ имени П. П. Семёнова-Тян-Шанского, 2020. - 87 с. - ISBN 978-5-907335-13-4. - Текст : электронный. - URL: https://znanium.ru/catalog/product/2158106 (дата обращения: 21.07.2024). – Режим доступа: по подписке.
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Министерство просвещения Российской Федерации 

Федеральное государственное бюджетное образовательное учреждение 

высшего образования 

«Липецкий государственный педагогический университет 

имени П.П. Семенова-Тян-Шанского» 

 

Кафедра лингвистики и межкультурной коммуникации 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Н.В. Орлова, И.С. Николаенко, В.А. Жукатинская 

 

ENGLISH SYNTAX IN TABLES  

 
 
 
 
 
 

Учебное пособие 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 

Липецк – 2020 

 
 

 

Министерство просвещения Российской Федерации 

Федеральное государственное бюджетное образовательное учреждение 

высшего образования 

«Липецкий государственный педагогический университет 

имени П.П. Семенова-Тян-Шанского» 

 
 

Кафедра лингвистики и межкультурной коммуникации 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Н.В. Орлова, И.С. Николаенко, В.А. Жукатинская 

 

СИНТАКСИС АНГЛИЙСКОГО ЯЗЫКА В ТАБЛИЦАХ 

 
 
 

Учебное пособие 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 

Липецк – 2020 

 
 

 

УДК 811.111 
 
 
 
 
 
Рекомендовано к печати 

ББК 81.432.1я73-3 
 
 
 
 
кафедрой лингвистики и 

О 66 
 
 
 
 
 
межкультурной коммуникации 
Протокол № 1 от 31.08.2020 г. 

 

Орлова, Н.В.  Синтаксис английского языка в таблицах: учебное пособие /  

Н.В. Орлова, И.С. Николаенко, В.А. Жукатинская. – Липецк: ЛГПУ имени  

П.П. Семенова-Тян-Шанского, 2020. – 87 с. 

 
ISBN 978-5-907335-13-4 

 
Пособие содержит таблицы по различным типам предложений, 

разработанный к ним банк упражнений и отрывки художественной прозы для 
анализа и перевода. Оно обеспечивает развитие грамматических умений и 
формирует систему знаний по синтаксису английского языка.  Пособие 
предназначено для студентов 4-го курса, изучающих английский язык как 
первый иностранный, обучающихся по направлениям подготовки 41.03.01 
«Зарубежное регионоведение» (Регионоведение по странам Западной Европы), 
45.03.02 «Лингвистика» (Перевод и переводоведение), 45.03.02 «Лингвистика» 
(Теория и методика преподавания иностранных языков и культур). 
Рекомендовано для слушателей программ дополнительного профессионального 
образования соответствующего направления подготовки. 
 

УДК 811.111 
ББК 81.432.1я73-3 
О 66 

Рецензенты:  
О.В. Кашкарова, канд. филол. наук, доцент кафедры иностранных языков 
ФГБОУ ВО ЛГТУ 
С.В. Зелепукина, канд. пед. наук,  директор по развитию НОУ ДО «Вектор 

успеха» 

 

 

ISBN 978-5-907335-13-4
© ФГБОУ ВО «Липецкий государственный 
педагогический университет имени 
П.П. Семенова-Тян-Шанского», 2020
© Н.В. Орлова, 2020
© И.С. Николаенко, 2020
© В.А. Жукатинская, 2020

 
 

TABLE OF CONTENTS 

 

 

Part I: The Simple Sentence ................................................................................ 4 

The Simple Sentence ........................................................................................... 5 

The Principal Parts Of The Sentence .................................................................. 13 

The Subject ....................................................................................................... 13 

“It” As The Subject Of The Sentence .................................................................. 14 

The Predicate .................................................................................................... 17 

The Predicative.................................................................................................. 18 

Agreement Of The Predicate And The Subject .................................................... 22 

The Secondary Parts Of The Sentence ............................................................... 26 

The Object ........................................................................................................ 26 

The Attribute .................................................................................................... 32 

Apposition......................................................................................................... 33 

The Adverbial Modifier ...................................................................................... 37 

Detached (Loose) Parts Of The Sentence ............................................................ 39 

Independent Elements Of The Sentence ............................................................ 41 

Sentences With Homogeneous Parts .................................................................. 43 

Part II: The Composite Sentence ........................................................................ 46 

Subject Clauses ................................................................................................ 52 

Predicative Clauses ........................................................................................... 54 

Object Clauses .................................................................................................. 56 

Attributive Clauses ........................................................................................... 60 

Adverbial Clauses ............................................................................................. 66 

The Sequence Of Tenses .................................................................................... 70 

Indirect Speech ................................................................................................. 73 

Part III: Sample Sentences For The Analysis ...................................................... 77 

Syntactical Analysis Of A Sentence.................................................................... 81 

Список используемой литературы и источников: ........................................... 83 

 

 

 
 

PART I 

 

THE SIMPLE SENTENCE 

 

 

 
 

THE SIMPLE SENTENCE 

 

The sentence is a unit of speech whose grammatical structure conforms to the laws of the language and which serves are the chief means of 
conveying a thought. It is not only a means of communicating something about reality but also a means of showing the speaker’s attitude to it. 

The classification of simple sentences is based on two principles: 

1. 
According to the purpose of the utterance: 

 

Kinds of 
sentences
Characteristic features
Word order
Intonation
Examples
NB!

Declarative
states a fact in the affirmative or 

negative form

The subject precedes the 

predicate

falling
No place in Europe was better 
suited for formal mass revelry.

In English the predicate in a 
sentence can have only one 
negation.

Interrogative

general

special

alternative

disjunctive

Ask a question
Inversion takes place

Requires the answer «yes» or 
«no»

The part of the predicate (the 
auxiliary or modal verb or the 
verbs to be or to have) is 
placed before subject.

rising
Do you like art?
Don’t you like the classical 
music?

Sometimes such questions have a 
negative 
form 
and 
express 

astonishment or doubt (разве, 
неужели)

Begins with interrogative words
The 
same 
as 
in 
general 

questions but the interrogative 
word precedes the auxiliary 
verbs.

falling

Where are you going?
Who 
watched 
this 
film

yesterday?

When the interrogative word is 
the subject of the interrogative 
sentence or an attribute to the 
subject the word order is direct, 
no inversion takes place.

Indicates choice
The 
same 
as 
in 
general 

questions but the alternative 
words stays near the word to 
which it is given.

Rising (in the 
first part) and 
falling (in the 
second part)

Do you like tea or coffee?

Requires the answer «yes» or 
«no»; consists of the statement 
and a tag to it.

The statement is what it is and in 
the tag auxiliary verb precedes the 
subject expressed by a personal 
pronoun.

Falling (in the 
first part) and 
rising (in the 
second part)

Ann misses her English lessons 
every Monday, doesn’t she?

If the statement is affirmative, 
then the tag will be in the 
negative and vice versa.

Imperative
Serves to induce a person to do 
something, it expresses:

a command


a request


an invitation etc.

Begins 
with 
a 
verb 
in 

imperative mood.
falling
rising

Come to me!
Open the door, please!

Exclamatory
Expresses some kind of emotion 

feeling

Often begins with the words 
what and how. No inversion 
takes place.

falling
What a lovely day it is.
How beautiful.

2. 
According to the structure: 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

two - member
one - member

Has two members – a subject and a predicate. If one of them 

is missing it can be easily understood from the context.

e.g. He looked for another place to go.

Has only one member which is neither the subject nor the 
predicate but makes the sense complete. Generally used 

in descriptions and emotional speech.

e.g. Freedom!

incomplete/elliptical
complete

One of the principal parts or
both of them are missing, but 
can be easily understood from 
the context. Mostly used in 
colloquial 
speech,
esp. 
in 

dialogue. 
 
e.g. Where were you yesterday? 
– At the cinema.

Has a subject and a predicate.
 
 
 
e.g. Young John couldn’t help 
smiling. 

nominal
«infinitive»

Expressed by a noun and may 
be modified by attributes. 
 
 
e.g. The doll point and the life 
slowly dripping out of him. 

Expressed by an infinitive.
 
 
 
E.g. To die out there - lonely. 

Extended
Unextended

Consists of the subject, predicate and one or more 

secondary parts.

e.g. After all she is the only one whom I have.

Consists only of the principle parts of the sentence

e.g. She is a student.

Exercise 1  Do the crossword puzzle below. 
 

1.

2.

3.
4.

5.
6.
7.
8.

9.
10.

11.

 

 

Across:
Down:

3
5
7

9

10
11

Kind of a question 
Sth. that the imperative sentence expresses
The type of a sentence according to its 
structure
The part of a disjunctive sentence
Kind of a sentence
The thing that alternative question indicates

1
2

4
6
8

Kind of an interrogative sentence
The intonation the special questions are 
pronounced with
Kind of a two-member sentence
A unit of speech
Kind of a sentence according to its structure

 

Exercise 2 Define the types of sentences according to the purpose of the utterance. 

Laura was terribly nervous. Tossing the velvet ribbon over her shoulder, she said to a 

woman standing by, "Is this Mrs. Scott's house?" and the woman, smiling queerly, said, "It 
is, my lass." Oh, to be away from this! She actually said, "Help me God!" as she walked up 
the tiny path and knocked. To be away from these staring eyes, or to be covered up in 
anything, one of those women's shawls even! I'll just leave the basket and go, she decided. I 
shan't even wait for it to be emptied. 

Then the door opened. A little woman in black showed in the gloom. 
Laura said, "Are you Mrs. Scott?" But to her horror the woman answered, "Walk in, 

please, miss," arid she was shut in the passage. "No," said Laura, "I don't want to come in. I 
only want to leave this basket." 
The little woman in the gloomy passage seemed not to hear her. "Step this way, please, 
miss," she said in an oily voice, and Laura followed her. (Mansfield) 
 

Exercise 3 Define the type of question 

1) "Who is he?" I said. "And why does he sit always with his back to us too?" (Mansfield)  
2) "Did she have a chill?" he asked, his eyes upon the floor. (Cronin) 
3) You have Mr. Eden's address, haven't you, Mr. Ends? (London) 
4) Is literature less human than the architecture and sculpture of Egypt? (London) 
5) We shall have a sort of celebration for the bride, shan't we, Mr. Crawley? (Du Maurier) 
6) "Can I see the manager?" I said, and added politely, "alone." (Leacock) 
7) When had the carriage been back from taking Miss June to the station? (Galsworthy)  
8) What is the meaning of that? She is going to live in the house, isn't she? (Galsworthy) 
9) He couldn't understand what Irene found wrong with him: it was not as if he drank. Did 

he run into debt, or gamble or swear? (Galsworthy)  

10) Are you talking about the house? I haven't seen it yet. Shall we go on Sunday? (Cronin)  
11) Don't you realize it's quite against the rules to have him. (Cronin)  
12) How will you carry the bill into effect? Can you commit a whole country to their own 

prisons? (Byron) 

 
Exercise 4  Make up sentences that would have the following characteristics: 

1. 
simple, interrogative, disjunctive, two-member, complete, extended; 

2. 
simple, declarative, one-member, nominal, extended; 

3. 
simple, exclamatory, two-member, complete, unextended; 

4. 
simple, interrogative, special, two-member, complete, unextended; 

5. 
simple, declarative, one-member, infinitive, unextended; 

6. 
simple, imperative, two-member, elliptical, extended; 

7. 
simple, exclamatory, one-member, nominal, unextended; 

8. 
simple, interrogative, alternative, two-member, complete, unextended; 

9. 
simple, declarative, one-member, infinitive, unextended; 

10. simple, interrogative, general, two-member, complete, unextended; 

 

Exercise 5 Translate the extracts from E. Zamyatin’s story and analyse them. 

1) 
Ледники, мамонты, пустыни. Ночные, черные, чем-то похожие на дома, скалы; в 
скалах пещеры. И неизвестно, кто трубит ночью на каменной тропинке между 
скал и, вынюхивая тропинку, раздувает белую снежную пыль ... Одно ясно: зима 
... Дальше отступить было некуда: тут надо было выдержать осаду или умереть. 

2) 
- Ты куда, Март? - Я сейчас. За водой вниз.  

3) 
Двадцать девятое. С утра низкое, дырявое, влажное небо, и сквозь дыры несет 
льдом ...  

4) 
В пещере еще темно. Глиняный холодный, слепой - Мартин Mартиныч тупо 
натыкался на перепутанные в пещере предметы. 

5) 
Внизу начали колоть каменным топором. Вдруг перестали, какая-то беготня, 
крик…  

6) 
- Погоди, Маша - кажется - кажется у нас стучат. Нет. Никого. Пока еще никого. 
Еще можно дышать, еще можно запрокинуть голову, слушать голос - такой 
похожий на тот, прежний. 

 

Exercise 6 Check the sentences below and dwell on the mistakes in the analysis.  

1. 
The opening could possibly be worse. (O. Henry) - simple, declarative, two-member, 
incomplete, extended. 

2. 
I can support her myself. Leave me and go to him! (J. Austen) 
a) 
simple, declarative, two-member, complete, extended; 

b) 
simple, imperative, one-member, infinitive, extended. 

3. 
«What are you looking at? « «At a countess in her bathing suit» (A. Christie) 
a) 
simple, interrogative, special, two-member, incomplete, extended; 

b) 
simple, declarative, two-member, extended. 

4. 
He broke off abruptly, alarmed at what he had done. (K. Rhodes) - simple, declarative, 
two-member, elliptical, extended. 

5. 
It was the rejection slips that completed the horrible machine - likeness of the process. 
(J. London) - simple, declarative, two-member, complete, extended. 

6. 
The things that really matter happen in the heart. (A. Huxley). - simple, declarative, twomember, complete, extended. 

7. 
Who else is going to give birth to more chumps like you two? (J. Herbert) - simple, 
interrogative, special, one-member, extended. 

8. 
Don’t look at him! (R. Kipling) - simple, exclamatory, two-member, elliptical, extended. 

9. 
The story of the Tsar, his Empress, and the realm they cost. (R.K. Massie) - simple, 
declarative, one-member, nominal, extended. 

10. The proposition and demonstration were fairly written on a thin wafer. (J. Swift). - 

simple, declarative, two-member, complete, extended.  

 

Exercise 7 Point out all the elliptical sentences and state what part of the sentence 

is missing. 

1. “Yes, we are both well, thank you, Firth. Rather tired from the drive, and wanting our 

tea.”  

2. “Glad to see you home, and hope you have been keeping well.” 
3. “Got a cigar, Root?” - “No.”  
4. It was near the end of their stay, and the April sun hot.  
5. “Sorry to be late again,” he said...  
6. The thunder was faint now, the flashes imperceptible.  
7. Nobody was at home - Soames in London, Annette at a garden party. 
8. The sky was of purplish hue - the poplars black.  
9. “How are you?” he asked me. - “Fine,” I said.  
10. “Just at sunset, the air turned cold and the sky cloudy.” 

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