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Английская грамматика и лексика в фокусе

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Данное пособие предназначено для совершенствования навыков и развития грамматических и лексических умений студентов старших курсов специального факультета, изучающих английский язык как первый иностранный. Пособие охватывает всю программу практического курса грамматики английского языка (морфология), а также содержит значительный блок лексического материала по основным темам обсуждения. Введение в теоретические проблемы курса осуществляется на фоне обобщающего описания основ грамматического и лексического строя английского языка. Каждый раздел включает грамматические и лексические таблицы, вопросы и упражнения, контролирующие и углубляющие понимание фактов языка. В данном пособии также представлены упражнения, направленные на развитие профессиональных и творческих способностей студентов. Пособие предназначено для студентов 4-го курса, изучающих английский язык как первый иностранный, обучающихся по направлениям подготовки 41.03.01 «Зарубежное регионоведение» (Регионоведение по странам Западной Европы), 45.03.02 «Лингвистика» (Перевод и переводоведение), 45.03.02 «Лингвистика» (Теория и методика преподавания иностранных языков и культур). Пособие также рекомендовано для слушателей программ дополнительного профессионального образования, соответствующего направления подготовки.
Орлова, Н. В. Английская грамматика и лексика в фокусе : учебное пособие / Н. В. Орлова. - Липецк : ЛГПУ имени П. П. Семёнова-Тян-Шанского, 2020. - 227 с. - ISBN 978-5-907335-52-3. - Текст : электронный. - URL: https://znanium.ru/catalog/product/2158010 (дата обращения: 19.07.2024). – Режим доступа: по подписке.
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Министерство просвещения Российской Федерации 

Федеральное государственное бюджетное образовательное учреждение 

высшего образования 

«Липецкий государственный педагогический университет 

имени П.П. Семенова-Тян-Шанского» 

Кафедра лингвистики и межкультурной коммуникации 

Н.В. Орлова 

FOCUS ON ENGLISH GRAMAR & VOCABULARY

Учебное пособие 

Липецк – 2020 

Министерство просвещения Российской Федерации 

Федеральное государственное бюджетное образовательное учреждение 

высшего образования 

«Липецкий государственный педагогический университет 

имени П.П. Семенова-Тян-Шанского» 

Кафедра лингвистики и межкультурной коммуникации 

Н.В. Орлова 

АНГЛИЙСКАЯ ГРАММАТИКА И ЛЕКСИКА В ФОКУСЕ 

Учебное пособие 

Липецк – 2020 

УДК 811.111 
ББК 
81.432.1-923 
О 66  

Рекомендовано к печати кафедрой 
лингвистики 
и 
межкультурной 
коммуникации 
Протокол № 4 от 23.11.2020 г. 

Орлова, Н.В.  Английская грамматика и лексика в фокусе: учебное 
пособие / Н.В. Орлова. – Липецк: ЛГПУ имени П.П. Семенова-Тян-Шанского, 
2020. – 227 с. – Текст непосредственный.

ISBN 978-5-907335-52-3 

Данное пособие предназначено для совершенствования навыков и развития 
грамматических и лексических умений студентов старших курсов специального 
факультета, изучающих английский язык как первый иностранный. 
Пособие охватывает всю программу практического курса грамматики 
английского языка (морфология), а также содержит значительный блок лексического 
материала по основным темам обсуждения. Введение в теоретические проблемы 
курса осуществляется на фоне обобщающего описания основ грамматического и 
лексического строя английского языка. Каждый раздел включает грамматические и 
лексические таблицы, вопросы и упражнения, контролирующие и углубляющие 
понимание фактов языка. В данном пособии также представлены упражнения, 
направленные на развитие профессиональных и творческих способностей студентов. 

Пособие предназначено для студентов 4-го курса, изучающих английский язык 

как первый иностранный, обучающихся по направлениям подготовки 41.03.01 
«Зарубежное регионоведение» (Регионоведение по странам Западной Европы), 
45.03.02 «Лингвистика» (Перевод и переводоведение), 45.03.02 «Лингвистика» 
(Теория и методика преподавания иностранных языков и культур). 

Пособие также рекомендовано для слушателей программ дополнительного 

профессионального образования, соответствующего направления подготовки. 

УДК 811.111 
ББК 81.432.1-923 
О 66 

Рецензенты:  

 
М.А. Ивлева, канд. филол. наук, доцент кафедры иностранных языков гуманитарного 
факультета 
Новосибирского 
государственного 
технического 
университета 

О.В. Земцова, канд. филол. наук, доцент кафедры английского языка ФГБОУ ВО 

«Липецкий государственный педагогический университет имени 
П.П. Семенова-Тян-Шанского» 

ISBN 978-5-907335-52-3
© 
ФГБОУ 
ВО 
«Липецкий 
государственный 

педагогический 
университет 
имени 
П.П. Семенова-Тян-Шанского», 2020 

© Н.В. Орлова, 2020

TABLE OF CONTENTS 

 
UNIT 1 …………………………
Grammar 
1a Present Simple and Present 
Continuous 

1b Past Simple – Present 
Perfect – Present Perfect 
Continuous 

1c 
Past 
Perfect 
– 
Past 
Continuous – Past Perfect 
Continuous 

Vocabulary 
1d Education 
1e Phrasal Verbs with take 
1f Compound Nouns 
 
 
UNIT 2 …………………………… 
Grammar 
2a The Future 
2b 
Time 
and 
Condition 

Clauses 
with 
Future 

Reference 

2c Future Continuous and 

Future Perfect 

Vocabulary 
2d Health and Medicine 
2e Phrasal Verbs with get 
2f Compound Adjectives 
 
Exam Practice 1 
 
 
UNIT 3 ……………………… 
Grammar 
3a 
Countable 
and 

Uncountable Nouns 

3b Articles 
3c Determiners (all, each, 

every, either, several, etc.) 

 
 
 

5
5 
 
5 
 
 
8 
 
 
11 
14 
14 
17 
20 
 
 
23 
23 
23 
 
 
26 
 
29 
32 
32 
36 
39 
 
42 
 
 
47 
47 
 
47 
51 
 
54 
 
 
 

Vocabulary
3d Crime and Punishment 
3e Phrasal Verbs with break 
3f Suffixes (1) 
 
 
UNIT 4 ……………………………… 
Grammar 
4a The Passive 
4b Causative get and have 
4c Question Tags 
Vocabulary 
4d The Environment 
4e Phrasal Verbs with make/do 
4f Confusing Word Pairs (1): 

make – do 

 
Exam Practice 2 
 
 
UNIT 5 ………………………… 
Grammar 
5a Modal Verbs (1) 
5b Modal Verbs (2) 
5c Modal Verbs (3) 
Vocabulary 
5d The Arts 
5e Phrasal Verbs with bring 
5f Suffixes (2) 
 
 
UNIT 6 ……………………..……… 
Grammar 
6a First, Second and Third 

Conditional 

6b I wish and If only 
6c Expressions of Time and 

Preference 

Vocabulary 
6d Jobs and Employment 
6e Phrasal Verbs with go 
6f Prefixes 

58
58 
62 
65 

 
 

68 
68 
68 
72 
73 
76 
76 
81 

 

82 

 

86 

 
 

90 
90 
90 
94 
97 
101 
101 
104 
107 

 
 

113 
113 

 

113 
117 

 

120 
121 
121 
124 
127 

Exam Practice 3

UNIT 7 …………………………
Grammar
7a Reported Speech (1)
7b Reported Speech (2)
7c – ing Forms and Infinitives 

After 
Verbs 
and 

Prepositions

Vocabulary
7d Travel and Tourism
7e Verbs of Speech
7f Prepositional Phrases

UNIT 8 ………………………….….
Grammar
8a 
Comparative 
and 

Superlative Adjectives

8b Order of Adjectives
8c Comparisons
Vocabulary
8d Food and Restaurants
8e Confusing Word Pairs (2)
8f Confusing Word Pairs (3)

Exam Practice 4

133

137
137
137
140

143
148
148
152
156

162
162

162
166
167
170
170
174
175

179

UNIT 9 ……………………………..
Grammar
9a Subject-Verb Agreement (1)
9b Subject-Verb Agreement (2)
9c It and There
Vocabulary
9d The Media
9e Phrasal Verbs with come
9f Connecting and Linking –

Time

UNIT 10 ……………………………
Grammar
10a Linking Verbs: be, get, 

appear, seem, become, etc.

10b 
Determiners 
and 

Quantifiers (1): few-a few, 
little-a 
little, 
some-any
none, etc.

10c 
Determiners 
and 

Quantifiers 
(2): 
many
much-most, a lot (of)-lots 
(of)

Vocabulary
10d Shopping
10e 
Phrasal 
Verbs 
with 

see/run/turn/let/set/put 
etc.

10f Connecting and Linking –

Contrasts

Exam Practice 5

Resource Books

183
183
183
186
189
192
192
195

198

201
201

201

204

207
210
210

213

216

219

224

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

UNIT 1 

Grammar 

1a Present Simple and Present Continuous

1b Past Simple – Present Perfect – Present Perfect Continuous 

1c Past Perfect – Past Continuous – Past Perfect Continuous 

 

1a Present Simple and Present Continuous 

Present Simple (base form)
Present Continuous (present of be + … ing)

We use Present Simple:

• To describe things that are always 

true: 

Nurses look after patients in hospital. 

• To talk about habits or things that 

happen on a regular basis: 

I get up at 7.30 most days. 

• To talk about a permanent action: 

My sister lives in Dublin. 

• To refer to general truths: 

Water freezes at 0 degrees. 

• To tell a story or joke: 

He 
leaves home 
in search 
of 

adventures… 

• To describe the states with the verbs 

agree, assume, believe, belong to, 

contain, cost, disagree, feel, hate, 

have, hope, know, like, look, love, 

own, prefer, realize, regret, resemble, 

smell, taste: 

I have a brother. 

 

 

We use Present Continuous:

• To refer to temporary situations 

existing for a period at the present time: 

He’s studying very hard nowadays. 

• To talk about changes, developments, 

and trends: 

He’s 
beginning 
to 
realize 
how 

difficult it is to be an interpreter. 

• To describe repeated actions or events 

that are happening at or around the 

time of speaking: 

You are talking too loudly. 

• To express annoying habits with 

words like always, constantly, forever, 

or continually: 

You are continually interrupting me! 

• To promise something unpleasant 

with expression never … again: 

I’ m never seeing him again! 

• With some state verbs to emphasize 

that a situation is temporary, for a 

period of time around the present: 

I’m just thinking. (= at the moment) 

1. Put the verb in the correct form, Present Simple or Present Continuous. 

1. 
Nell is a student, but she ____ (go, not) to school right now because it’s summer. 

2. 
I usually _______ (cook) meals, and my sister _______ (wash) dishes. 

3. 
Martha _______ (dislike) Italian food. 

4. 
“What Peter _______ (do) for a living?” “Oh, he ______ (work) in a bank”. 

5. 
Mike _______ (sit, usually) in the front row during class, but today he 

_______ (sit) in the last row. 

6. 
I’m tired. I _______ (go) to bed now. Goodnight! 

7. 
He _______ (enjoy) the job and _______ (find) it very amusing, too. 

8. 
Lucy _______ (look) for a place to live. She _______ (stay) with her brother 

until she finds somewhere. 

9. 
We usually ______ (get up) at about 8.30. Couldn’t you come an hour later? 

10. I’m on holiday at the moment and I _______ (work) in a public library, I’m 

lucky to have this job. I (not, get up) early. 

 

2. Are the underlined verbs right or wrong? Correct the verbs that are wrong. 

1. 
Take your umbrella! It rains

2. 
Can you phone a bit later? Jill 

 cats and dogs. 

is having

3. 
The man in the dark green coat 

 a bath. 

is looking

4. 
How much 

 like Lesley Simmons. 

is it costing

5. 
I 

 to send a fax to Delhi?  

hate

6. 
I

 big cities. 

’m never speaking

7. 
My uncle 

 to you again! 

is smoking

8. 
“I think I’ll stay here after all.” “You

 30 cigarettes a day. 

’re constantly changing

9. 
You

 your mind!” 

’re seeing 

10. The juice 

things – there’s nobody at the window. 

is tasting

 

 good. 

3. Underline the correct tense, Present Simple or Present Continuous, in the 

following sentences. 

1. 
I can’t understand why he’s being/is so selfish. He isn’t usually like that. 

2. 
The sea grows/is growing calmer. We can go to the beach in the afternoon. 

3. 
The world changes/is changing rapidly in such spheres as medicine, art and 
business. 

4. 
I’m remembering/remember that holiday we spent in Canada a few years ago. 

5. 
Jane speaks/is speaking three languages. 

6. 
He never uses/is using his mobile phone if he drives/is driving. 

7. 
You are making/make salad using vegetables, oil or mayonnaise. 

8. 
They are thinking/think of moving to a smaller house. 

9. 
She is always borrowing/always borrows money but she is always 
paying/always pays me back. 

10. I am looking/look for my bag. Where is it? 

 
 
4. Fill in the gaps with the correct verb. Use the correct form of the Present 
Simple or Present Continuous. Use each verb once. 

 

feel
bring
talk
be
stop
bear
overcome
see

take
spend
resist
influence
buy
waste
have
find

 

PEOPLE WHO CAN’T STOP SHOPPING 

They … (1) guilty of spending hundreds of dollars in a few minutes. Later, they are 
ashamed of what they have done and … (2) it difficult … (3) to some people about it. 

Are they gamblers or slaves to alcohol? No, they … (4) not. They are simply 
people who cannot … (5) buying things. 

These people are different from bored housewives or husbands who 
occasionally … (6) a pair of shoes or a camera on impulse. They are compulsive 
shoppers and will buy six pairs of shoes or cameras at a time - usually to … (7) their 
depression. Then they can’t … (8) it if anyone … (9) what they have bought. 

Such people usually … (10) a credit card everywhere with them and may … 
(11) several thousand dollars. They are often married to someone who is fairly 
wealthy – or who, at least, is by no means poor. They … (12) a strong moral sense 
but it …. not … (13) the way in which they behave. They cannot … (14) the 
temptation … (15) a sum of money impulsively. No matter how high the price of 
something is, they will buy it. The strain may cause a lot of damage to their marriage 
and … (16) misery to their family and friends. It can also have a serious effect on 
their health. 

 

 

1b Past Simple – Present Perfect – Present Perfect Continuous 
 

Past Simple (past form)
Present Perfect (present of have + past 

participle) 

We use Past Simple:

 

• To indicate that something happened 

at a specific time in the past: 

James left a few hours ago. 

 

• For 
finished 
actions 
with 
time 

indicators like ago, last: 

I got up at 7.30 last Monday. 

 

 

 

We use Present Perfect:

 

• For actions or states in the past which 

have a connection with the present: 

I’ve found the book you were looking 

for. Here it is. 

• To talk about the actions in the past 

that have a result now: 

They’ve 
arrested 
the 
men 
in 

connection with the robbery. 

• To describe repeated actions or events 

in the past with words like often, 

rarely, seldom: 

You have often been to Chile, haven’t 

you? 

• For actions with words like already, 

before, ever, never, recently, lately, 

still, yet, etc.: 

Nothing like this has happened 

before! 

• With this month/today/this evening 

etc. when these periods are not 

finished at the time of speaking: 

Have you had a holiday this year? 

(yet) 

 

Present Perfect Continuous 

(present form of have+  been + -ing) 

 
• We use the Present Perfect Continuous to talk about a situation or an activity that 
started in the past and has been in progress for a period of time now or has just 
stopped. We use it especially when we mean the duration of the action: 

 

She’s been waiting for ages! 
Your eyes are red – have you been crying? 

 
• We use the Present Perfect Continuous when we are talking about how long the 
action or event has been going on. We often use the Present Perfect Continuous 
with for and since: 

 

I’ve been looking for you for you for the last half hour. 

……………………………………………………………………………………… 

 
1. Put the verb in the correct form, Past Simple, Present Perfect or Present 
Perfect Continuous. 

 

1. 
I admit that I _______ (get) older since I last _______ (see) you, but with 

any luck at all, I _______ (get, also) wiser. 

2. 
Where is Dad? I _______ (wait) for him since 6 p.m. We are going to be late 

for the concert. 

3. 
Alice promised to come, but she is absent. Something _______ (happen) to 

her. 

4. 
I’m pleased to say that the team _______ (play) well all season. 

5. 
I’ll go and wash my eyes. I don’t want my husband to see I _______ (cry). 

6. 
It was a funny situation but nobody _______ (laugh). 

7. 
Sue is very tired. She _______ (work) very hard. 

8. 
I don’t smoke any more. I _______ (give up) smoking. 

9. 
I _______ (visit) the Hague since 1995 and I _______ (feel) very safe here. 

10. As house prices _______ (rise), people _______ (move) into the 

countryside. 

 

2. Choose the most appropriate word from below. 
 

for
since
ago
already
yet
still

 

1. Don’t eat the pears. They aren’t ripe _______ . 
2. The number of deaths from lung cancer has been rising _______ 1950. 
3. Our family haven’t heard from him _______ five years. 
4. Will you _______ love me when I’m old and white? 
5. I last met you in Prague three years _______ . 
6. Have you made your bed _______ ? 
7. We haven’t gone out together _______ about a month. 
8. The accident happened two years _______ . 
9. I won’t have a tea, thanks. – I’ve had one _______ . 
10. He has never sailed again _______ that journey. 

 
 
3. Are the underlined verbs right or wrong? Correct the verbs that are wrong. 
 

1. 
There isn’t much more to do, now that we have been solving

2. 
When 

 the main 
problem. 

has Mr. Clark left

3. 
Do you do much travelling? What countries 

? 

have you visited

4. 
I 

? 

slept

5. 
I’

 well last night. 

ve been swimming 

6. 
Chinese craftsmen 

and I feel exhausted. 

have invented

7. 

 both paper and printing. 

Have you had

8. 
In recent years, Japanese companies 

 a pet when you were young? 

put

9. 
The Earth 

 a lot of money into developing 
computer technology. 

has been formed

10. I’

 about 4,500 million years ago. 

ve had 

11. They 

the pains for three weeks now. 

have been asking him to visit them for ages, but he has never had

12. You look sunburnt. 

 the 
time. 

Did you sit

13. I 

 in the sun? 

have started

14. Somebody 

 Spanish classes in December. 

has been smoking

15. Since Christmas the weather 

 all my cigarettes. The packet is empty. 
was

 
 quite good. 

 
 

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