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Агрономия для профессионалов

Учебник английского языка для профессионалитета по специальности 35.02.05 Агрономия
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Содержатся тексты на английском языке, в которых освещаются общие сведения о земледелии, а также упражнения для закрепления речевых навыков. Предназначено для обучающихся профессионалитета по специальности 35.02.05 Агрономия.
Рыльщикова, Л. М. Агрономия для профессионалов : учебник английского языка для профессионалитета по специальности 35.02.05 Агрономия / Л. М. Рыльщикова, О. В. Храмова. - Волгоград : ФГБОУ ВО Волгоградский ГАУ, 2023. - 136 с. - ISBN 978-5-4479-0351-0. - Текст : электронный. - URL: https://znanium.com/catalog/product/2132358 (дата обращения: 22.05.2024). – Режим доступа: по подписке.
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Министерство науки и высшего образования Российской Федерации Департамент координации деятельности организаций в сфере сельскохозяйственных наук Федеральное государственное бюджетное образовательное учреждение высшего образования «Волгоградский государственный аграрный университет»

Кафедра «Иностранные языки»

Л.М. Рыльщикова
О.В. Храмова



Волгоград Волгоградский ГАУ 2023

УДК 811.111.1
ББК81.2 Англ.


доктор филологических наук, профессор кафедры «Иностранные языки» ФГБОУ ВО «Волгоградский государственный технический университет» Пром Н. А.; кандидат филологических наук, доцент кафедры «Иноязычная коммуникация и лингводидактика» ФГАОУ ВО «Волгоградский государственный университет» Аржановская А. В.

     Рыльщикова, Любовь Михайловна

Р-95      Агрономия для профессионалов : учебник английского
языка для профессионалитета по специальности 35.02.05 Агрономия / Л.М. Рыльщикова, О.В. Храмова - Волгоград: ФГБОУ ВО Волгоградский ГАУ, 2023. - 136 с.

ISBN 978-5-4479-0351-0

     Содержатся тексты на английском языке, в которых освещаются общие сведения о земледелии, а также упражнения для закрепления речевых навыков.
     Предназначено для обучающихся профессионалитета по специальности 35.02.05 Агрономия.

УДК 811.111.1
ББК81.2 Англ.

      Рекомендовано методической комиссией института непрервного образования ФГБОУ ВО Волгоградский ГАУ (протокол №         1 от
20.09.2022 г.).

ISBN 978-5-4479-0351-0     © ФГБОУ ВО Волгоградский ГАУ, 2023

                       © Рыльщикова Л.М., Храмова О.В., 2023


L.M. Rylshchikova, O.V. Khramova






        Introduction to Profession

       Volgograd State Agrarian University is one of the largest agricultural universities of our country. It was founded in 1944 in Uryupinsk and after the war, in 1948, it was transferred to Stalingrad.
       Since that time over 42 thousand specialists have graduated from the university.

      At present 9 thousand students (both full-time and correspondent course ones) study here. The university has 7 faculties. They are:
      • Agrotechnological faculty,
      • Biotechnological and Veterinary Medicine faculty,
      • Engineering and Technological Faculty,
      • Electrical Engineering Faculty,
      • Ecological and Land Improvement Faculty,
      • Faculty of Economics,
      •       Faculty of Technology of Production and Processing of Agricultural Products.
      On March 1, 2013, the Institute of Continuous Education began its work in the structure of the Volgograd State Agrarian University.
      The educational process is conducted by 560 teachers including 3 academicians and 65 professors. The academic year starts in September and ends in June. The students take exams twice a year. During the terms they attend lectures, carry out laboratory tests and do practical work. The students have a 5-year course of study, after it they can enter a post-graduate course.
      Nowadays the Volgograd State Agrarian University has 6 educational Buildings, 6 students’ hostels, the fleet of motor vehicles and the economic base “Gornaya Polyana”. There is also a scientific research complex, an information and analytical center, centers of amateur arts activities, lecture rooms, laboratories, a museum, a library, a nice assembly-hall, a printing-office and other subdivisions.
      The university has old and good traditions. Its aim is to create all the necessary conditions for the students to develop their talents, enrich their minds, improve their physical state and cultural level.



      On March 1, 2013, the Institute of Continuous Education began its work in the structure of the Volgograd State Agrarian University. This is an innovative model that brings together different levels of education and allows the introduction of lifelong learning technology.

      The IPE prepares graduates of secondary vocational education for their further education in higher education programs in a shortened time frame in the relevant areas of undergraduate and specialist studies, which is achieved through the integration of educational programs of secondary vocational education and higher education on the basis of continuity.

      Recruitment for educational programs of secondary vocational education was first opened in 2012, then the youngest students of our university were 138 graduates of the ninth and eleventh grades from all regions of the Volgograd region.

      Currently, there are more than 2,300 students at the INO and training is being conducted in 17 specialties of secondary vocational education.

      INO students are active participants in scientific and practical conferences, competitions, competitions, festivals of regional, federal and allRussian levels, where they win prizes. We have something to be proud of!

      Students of the specialties Emergency Protection and Agricultural Mechanization simultaneously with the development of the specialty receive a driver's license!

      There are incentives to pay for driving lessons for students of other specialties.

      The main achievement and pride are our graduates, who successfully work in various fields of professional activity. Continuing the traditions of the institute of continuing education, students improve their professional skills, become true masters of their craft.

      The golden fund of INO is teachers. A wonderful pedagogical team is working here, teaching methods are constantly being improved, continuous work is underway to improve its quality.



       Agriculture (also called farming or husbandry) is the cultivation of animals, plants, fungi, and other life forms for food, fiber, and other products used to sustain life. Agriculture was the key development in the rise of human civilization. The study of agriculture is known as agricultural science.

      The history of agriculture dates back thousands of years, and its development has been driven and defined by greatly different climates, cultures, and technologies.
      However, all farming generally relies on techniques to expand and maintain the lands suitable for raising domesticated species. For plants, this usually requires some form of irrigation, although there are methods of dryland farming; pastoral herding on rangeland is still the most common means of raising livestock. In the developed world,
      industrial agriculture based on large-scale monoculture has become the dominant
      system of modern farming, although there is growing support for sustainable agriculture (organic agriculture).
      Modern agronomy, plant breeding, pesticides and fertilizers, and technological improvements have sharply increased yields from cultivation, but at the same time have caused widespread ecological damage and negative human health effects.
      Selective breeding and modern practices in animal husbandry such as intensive pig fanning have similarly increased the output of meat, but have raised concerns about animal cruelty and the health effects of the antibiotics, growth hormones, and other chemicals commonly used in industrial meat production


      Agriculture in Russia is an important part of the economy of the Russian Federation. The agricultural sector survived a severe transition decline in the early 1990s as it struggled to transform from a command economy to a market-oriented system. Following the breakup of the Soviet Union in 1991, large collective and state farms - the backbone of


Soviet agriculture - had to contend with the sudden loss of state-guaranteed marketing and supply channels and a changing legal environment that created pressure for reorganization and restructuring. In less than ten years, livestock inventories de

clined by half, pulling down demand for feed grains, and the area planted to grains dropped by 25%.
      The use of mineral fertilizer and other purchased inputs plummeted, driving yields down. Most farms could no longer afford to purchase new machinery and other capital investments. Following a nearly ten-year period of decline, Russian agriculture has experienced gradual ongoing improvement. The 2014 devaluation of the rouble and imposition of sanctions spurred domestic production; in 2016 Russia exceeded Soviet Russia's grain production levels, and in that year became the world's largest exporter of wheat. In the last years Russia has emerged as a big agricultural power again, despite also facing various challenges.
      Geopolitical analyses of climate change adaptation foresee large opportunities for Russian agriculture during the rest of the 21st century as Siberia's arability increases. Managing migration flows, internal and international, is expected to be a central aspect of the process.


      The Volgograd region has a developed agricultural production and is one of the largest agricultural producers in the Russian Federation. The area of agricultural land is 8.8 million hectares, including 5.6 million hectares of arable land.
Volgograd Region has great nature and climate po


tential, which allows the region not only to meet domestic demands but also influence the Russian food market.
      Crop production accounts for about 70% of agricultural products (high-quality grain, corn, cereals, oil crops and their seeds, vegetable oil, vegetables, fruit and gourds), and livestock breeding, for 30% (pork, cattle, poultry and sheep).
      Agriculture suffers severely from droughts and soil erosion; irrigation is increasing steadily in many areas. The main crops are wheat, millet, corn (maize), sunflowers, and mustard. Along the Volga Upland, market gardening is well developed.
      3,7 Millions tones - wheat harvest
      87,6 ha - area of greenhouses
      62,9 Thousands tones - gross yield of
      vegetables in greenhouses


      Agriculture and environment are closely connected with each other. Crop yields and animal productivity depend on soil and climatic conditions of the region in which they are grown. When environmental conditions are favorable, crops grow and develop well and produce high yields.

      At present agriculture is not so dependent on the environment as in the past. (Man can improve the conditions under which crops are grown. The conditions can be improved by using irrigation and drainage, by applying fertilizers and different chemicals such as herbicides and insecticides and by some other practices. The environmental factors do not only affect agriculture, but they are also affected by the agricultural activity. Mineral fertilizers and chemicals used by farmers accumulate in the soil and in plants and may become harmful for people. Thus, the farmers have to solve two problems. On the one hand they are to improve and intensify agricultural production and on the other hand they are to minimize the effect of agriculture on the environment.



      Of the global land area, about 38% is agricultural land of which some 30% is arable land. The relations between agriculture and the natural environment are complex.
      Agriculture is of vital importance to many societies and is the sector with the most intensive interaction between man and environment. Agriculture has, by its very nature, a strong impact on the natural environment and the natural environment sets limits to agricultural production systems. Simply put, changes in agriculture affect the natural environment and vice versa (De Wit et al. 1987).
      Agriculture utilizes natural processes to produce the goods (food and non-food) that we need to support the demand of an ever-growing population.
      Agriculture also contributes to economic development in terms of income generation and employment. Paradoxically, however, economic growth and poverty reduction lead to declining relative importance of the agricultural sector.
      Agricultural land use has the potential to damage or destroy the natural resource base, thus undermining future development potentials. It often is the focus on short-term economic gain and disregard of long-term impacts and needs that lead to environmental degradation. Clearly, part of the solution lies in a change in demands from society, e.g., via changes in diet and lifestyle, but also the agricultural sector has a responsibility to find ways to reduce the negative environmental impacts. Agriculture, rooted in the natural resource base and serving as a major contributor to development, is at the forefront of shaping the concept of sustainable development.


      Agronomy is the branch of agriculture that deals with the development and practical management of plants and soils to produce food, feed, and fiber crops in a manner that preserves or improves the environment. The term "agronomy" represents the disciplines of soils, crops, and related sciences . Researchers in agronomy often work in close cooperation with scientists from disciplines such as biology, chemistry, biochemistry, soil microbiology,

ecology, mineralogy, entomology, plant genetics and engineering in order to improve productivity and reduce environmental problems.


       Agronomy is not a new field. In prehistoric times, humans shifted from foraging to cultivating specific crops, probably wheat or barley, for their food value. At harvest time, plants with easily gathered grain were selected first. This natural selection eventually made these food plants better adapted to continued cultivation because they were more easily harvested. Throughout the centuries, selection also occurred for other crop characteristics, such as taste, yield, and adaptation to specific soils and climates.
       The goal of today's production agronomists is essentially the same: to improve the quality, adaptability, and yield of our most important crops.
       Agronomy is an international discipline. Many of the problems, faced by societies around the world are universal in nature, and require international cooperation. For example, a major problem facing the developed world is that of how best to use the land resources. Within the developing world, the same problems exist.
       The questions of how much and which land should be saved for food and fiber production and which land should be used for nonagricultural uses must be addressed by both developing and developed societies. Agronomists play a crucial role in assessing land quality to assure an environmentally friendly use of land.
       Knowledge gained by agronomists in the developed world has helped improve the human conditions in the developing world. For example, through plant breeding, agronomists have developed high-yielding rice that is adapted to tropical climates.


       An agronomist is an expert in the use of scientific methods and techniques to improve farming. Agronomists receive training in the agricultural sciences, studying plants, the soil, agricultural techniques and the rural and urban environment. An agronomist is a multidisciplinary professional, who can work in a wide range of different sectors, including

agriculture, forestry and animal husbandry, as well as landscaping and ornamental gardening.
       So, what does an agronomist do?
       For example, agronomists look at how to improve agricultural production and processing capabilities, provide assistance with the cultivation


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