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Английский язык

Учебное пособие для студентов (бакалавров), изучающих византийское искусство, романскую и готическую архитектуру
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Учебное пособие по английскому языку ориентировано на усвоение специализированного языка искусствоведов. На материале оригинальных работ англоязычных ученых-искусствоведов студенты (бакалавры) отрабатывают лексико-грамматический материал и развивают языковую, речевую, культурную и профессиональную компетенцию, что оптимизирует процесс обучения английскому языку для специальных целей. Предназначено для студентов (бакалавров) высших учебных заведений, а также для всех желающих изучать английский язык самостоятельно и интересующихся искусством Византии, романским искусством и готической архитектурой.
Миньяр-Белоручева, А. П. Английский язык для студентов (бакалавров), изучающих византийское искусство, романскую и готическую архитектуру : учебное пособие / А.П. Миньяр-Белоручева. — 3-е изд., доп. — Москва : ФОРУМ : ИНФРА-М, 2023. — 144 с. — (Высшее образование: Бакалавриат). - ISBN 978-5-00091-525-7. - Текст : электронный. - URL: https://znanium.com/catalog/product/1913678 (дата обращения: 17.04.2024). – Режим доступа: по подписке.
Фрагмент текстового слоя документа размещен для индексирующих роботов. Для полноценной работы с документом, пожалуйста, перейдите в ридер.
АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК 

ДЛЯ СТУДЕНТОВ (БАКАЛАВРОВ), 

ИЗУЧАЮЩИХ ВИЗАНТИЙСКОЕ ИСКУССТВО, 
РОМАНСКУЮ И ГОТИЧЕСКУЮ АРХИТЕКТУРУ

А.П. Миньяр-Белоручева

3-е издание, дополненное

Допущено Учебно-методическим объединением 

по классическому университетскому образованию в качестве учебного пособия 

по английскому языку для студентов высших учебных заведений, 

обучающихся по направлению подготовки 50.03.03 «История искусств»

УЧЕБНОЕ ПОСОБИЕ 

Москва                                       21
20

ИНФРА-М
УДК 811.111(075.8)
ББК 81.2Англ-93я73
 
М62

Миньяр-Белоручева А.П.

М62  
Английский язык для студентов (бакалавров), изучающих византийское искусство, ро-

манскую и готическую архитектуру : учебное пособие / А.П. Миньяр-Белоручева. — 3-е изд., 
доп. — Москва : ФОРУМ : ИНФРА-М, 2021. — 144 с. — (Высшее образование: Бакалавриат).

ISBN 978-5-00091-525-7 (ФОРУМ)
ISBN 978-5-16-013713-1 (ИНФРА-М, print)
ISBN 978-5-16-103275-6 (ИНФРА-М, online)

Учебное пособие по английскому языку ориентировано на усвоение специализированного 

языка искусствоведов. На материале оригинальных работ англоязычных ученых-искусствоведов 
студенты (бакалавры) отрабатывают лексико-грамматический материал и развивают языковую, 
речевую, культурную и профессиональную компетенцию, что оптимизирует процесс 
обучения английскому языку для специальных целей.

Предназначено для студентов (бакалавров) высших учебных заведений, а также для всех 

желающих изучать английский язык самостоятельно и интересующихся искусством Византии, 
романским искусством и готической архитектурой.

УДК 811.111(075.8)

ББК 81.2Англ-93я73

Р е ц е н з е н т ы:

И.И. Тучков — доктор искусствоведения, профессор; 
Е.В. Сидоров — доктор филологических наук, профессор; 
Т.Н. Хомутова — доктор филологических наук, профессор

ISBN 978-5-00091-525-7 (ФОРУМ)
ISBN 978-5-16-013713-1 (ИНФРА-М, print)
ISBN 978-5-16-103275-6 (ИНФРА-М, online)

© Миньяр-Белоручева А.П., 2015
© ФОРУМ, 2016
УДК 811.111(075.8)
ББК 81.2Англ-93я73
 
М62

Миньяр-Белоручева А.П.
М62  
Английский язык для студентов (бакалавров), изучающих византийское искусство, 
романскую и готическую архитектуру : учебное пособие / А.П. Миньяр-Белоручева. — 
3-е изд., доп. — Москва : ФОРУМ : ИНФРА-М, 2023. — 144 с. — (Высшее образование: 
Бакалавриат).

ISBN 978-5-00091-525-7 (ФОРУМ)
ISBN 978-5-16-013713-1 (ИНФРА-М, print)
ISBN 978-5-16-103275-6 (ИНФРА-М, online)

Учебное пособие по английскому языку ориентировано на усвоение специализированного 
языка искусствоведов. На материале оригинальных работ англоязычных ученых-искусствоведов 
студенты (бакалавры) отрабатывают лексико-грамматический материал и развивают языковую, 
речевую, культурную и профессиональную компетенцию, что оптимизирует процесс 
обучения английскому языку для специальных целей.
Предназначено для студентов (бакалавров) высших учебных заведений, а также для всех 
желающих изучать английский язык самостоятельно и интересующихся искусством Византии, 
романским искусством и готической архитектурой.

УДК 811.111(075.8)
ББК 81.2Англ-93я73

Р е ц е н з е н т ы:
И.И. Тучков — доктор искусствоведения, профессор; 
Е.В. Сидоров — доктор филологических наук, профессор; 
Т.Н. Хомутова — доктор филологических наук, профессор

ISBN 978-5-00091-525-7 (ФОРУМ)
ISBN 978-5-16-013713-1 (ИНФРА-М, print)
ISBN 978-5-16-103275-6 (ИНФРА-М, online)
© Миньяр-Белоручева А.П., 2015
© ФОРУМ, 2016
Part I 
Byzantine Art

Unit 1. The Earliest Christian Art

Notes. The text you are going to read deals with The Earliest Christian Art. Before reading study the 
following.

The earliest Christians had no practical need for art of any sort. Jesus himself, and after him the 
Apostles, preached and taught in houses, on hillsides, from ships, in streets and squares, and even 
in the Temple.

 
‰ Pre-reading taSkS

1. Learn the following words and word combinations.
aedicula — рака (гробница святого, ковчег с мощами святого; ларец для хранения 

святых мощей)

abhorrence [əbhɔr(ə)n(t)s] — отвращение; ненависть; 

to hold in abhorrence — питать отвращение. Syn: aversion

aisle [al] — 1) боковой неф храма; придел; 2) проход 
ambulatory [mbjələt(ə)r] — крытая внутренняя галерея монастыря
apse [ps] — апсида
apsidal — апсидальный
band [bnd] — поясок
baptize [bptaz] — крестить
barrel vault — цилиндрический / полуцилиндрический свод
basilica [bəzlkə] — базилика
Bethlehem [beθləm] — Вифлеем 
breaking of bread — преломление хлеба
canopy [knəp] — балдахин; полог, навес. Syn: awning, bed curtains
catechumen [,ktkju:men] — новообращённый; готовящийся к крещению. Syn: con-

vert

ceremonial processions — крестный ход
Unit 1. The Earliest Christian Art

cenotaph [senətf] — 1) кенотаф (символическая могила, не содержащая тела умер-

шего; сооружался в том случае, когда прах покойного оказывался недоступным 
для погребения); 2) памятник неизвестному солдату

chasuble [zjubl] — риза (верхнее облачение священника во время богослужения)
clerestory [kləstr] — верхний ряд окон, освещающий хоры
circular plan — круглый план
coffer groin vault — крестовый свод
columbarium [kɔləmbεərəm] — ниша для урны
compunction [kəmpŋkʃ(ə)n] — угрызения совести; терзания; раскаяние. Syn: remorse, 

contrition

Communion table [kə,mju:nəntebl] — престол (в алтаре церкви)
congregation [kɔŋgrgeʃ(ə)n] — паства
consistency [kənsst(ə)n(t)s] — логичность, последовательность. Syn: logicality
cover [kvə] — оклад
dais [des] — помост, возвышение, кафедра
dank [dŋk] — влажный. Syn: humid 
demolish [dmɔlʃ] — разрушать, уничтожать; 

to demolish old buildings — сносить старые здания. Syn: tear down

enthronement [nθrəunmənt] — возведение на престол
Epistle [psl] — Послание
Eucharist [ju:k(ə)rst] — евхаристия, причастие; 

to celebrate / receive (the) Eucharist — причащаться; 
to give Eucharist — причащать

Gospel [gɔspəl] — Евангелие
Good Shepherd — пастырь
gourd vine [guəd van] — вьющийся стебель; растение из рода тыквенных
groundline — линия горизонта
intense [nten(t)s] — глубокий, значительный 
narthex [nθεks] — нартекс (притвор, помещение с западной стороны христианско-

го храма)

nave [nev] — центральный неф
inexhaustible [ngzɔ:stəbl] — неисчерпаемый. Syn: endless 
installation [nstəleʃ(ə)n] — введение в должность
issuance [ʃu(ə)n(t)s] — издание, выпуск (приказа)
Jericho [erkəu] — Иерихон
large-scale [,lskel] — 1) крупномасштабный. Syn: extensive, widespread
Last Supper — Тайная вечеря. Syn: Lords Supper
liturgy [ltə] — литургия; обедня (у православных), месса (у католиков); 

to chant / offer / recite the liturgy — служить литургию. Syn: Mass

magus [megəs] — волхв; pl. magi [med] — волхвы
martyrium — мартирий 
Mass [ms] — литургия, месса (у католиков), обедня, (у православных); 

to celebrate / offer / say Mass — служить обедню; 
to attend Mass — ходить к обедне; 
high / solemn Mass — праздничная месса; 
low Mass — малая месса . Syn: liturgy

mosaic [məuzek] — мозаика. Syn: inlay; мозаичный Syn: tessellated, inlaid
Part I. Byzantine Art

observance [əbz:v(ə)n(t)s] — соблюдение обряда
odoriferous [.əud(ə)rf(ə)rəs] — 1) душистый, пахучий; благоухающий. Syn: fragrant, 

sweet-scented, odorous

orant pose — поза оранты
pitcher [pə] — кувшин
peristyle [perstal] — перистиль
purloin [p:lɔn] — похищать. Syn: steal
prophet [prɔft] — пророк. Syn: foreteller 
radiate [redt] — расходящийся лучами
reentrant angle — входящий угол
repertory [repət(ə)r] — 1) набор, ассортимент. Syn: repertoire; 2) склад, хранилище; 

архив. Syn: depository, depot, repository

“speaking in tongues” = glossolalia — глоссолалия 
semidome — конха
scalloped [skɔləpt] — фестончатый, разрезанный 
sheath [ʃi:θ] — покрывать
squat [skwɔt] — приземистый
stag [stg] — олень-самец
stylite [stalat] — столпник (христианский отшельник, совершавший непрерывную 

молитву на столпе)

surmise [səmaz] — догадка, предположение
swelling — энтазис
tenement [tenəmənt] — многоквартирный дом
transept [trn(t)sept] — трансепт (поперечный неф или несколько нефов, пересека-

ющих продольный объём в крестообразных в плане зданиях)

triclinium [traklnəm] — триклиний (столовая комната в древнеримском доме)
unrelieved [nrli:vd] — монолитный
vestry — ризница (в церкви). Syn: vestiary [vestər]
vestiary architecture — приходская архитектура
vicar [vkə] — 1) приходский священник; викарий; 2) наместник
wean [wi:n] — отучать (от чего-л.)
worship [w:ʃp] — молиться

2. Make up a story of your own, use as many words and expressions from ex. 1 as possible. 

3. answer the following questions. 

1. Why did the Earliest Christians need art of any sort? 
2. When did the first Christian communities appear?
3. What were the Earliest Christians holy books?

4. Make sure you know how to pronounce the following.

Apostle [əpɔsl]; aisle [al]; basilica [bə’slkə]; Bethlehem [beθləm]; Byzantine [bzntan]; 

Caesarea [.si:zə’ri:ə]; catechumen [ktkju:men]; chasuble [zjubl]; Christianity [krstnət]; 
clerestory [kləstɔ:r]; Constantine [kɒnstəntn]; Constantinople [kɔnstntnəupl]; edict 
[i:dkt]; Diocletian [də’kli:ʃ(ə)n]; Ephesus [efəsəs]; Epistle [psl]; Eucharist [ju:k(ə)rst]; Eu-
sebius [ju:si:bəs]; Jericho [erkəu]; peristyle [perstal]; Pilate [plət]. Synagogue [snəgɔg]; 
Theotokos [θɒtəkɒs]; triclinium [traklnəm]; Trajan [tred(ə)n].
Unit 1. The Earliest Christian Art

5. expand on the words given in ex. 4.

6. translate the following into russian.

During the later first and second centuries, Christian communities remained small, 

and believers worshiped in private houses. The basic ceremony was the communal meal, 
celebrating the Last Supper, which began with the breaking of bread and concluded with the 
drinking of wine. The ceremony included prayers, the reading of passages from the Gos-
pels and the Epistles, discourses on the part of successors to the Apostles, and sometimes 
“speaking in tongues,” which is today so mysterious an aspect of early Christianity. A din-
ing room was essential, and the early Christians used the Roman triclinium (a dining room 
with a three-part couch extending around three sides of a table). In the crowded cities of the 
Eastern Empire, the triclinium was often located on an upper floor. Christianity was at first 
a religion chiefly for the lower classes, whom it sought to wean from the bloody spectacles of 
the arenas. Often religious meetings took place in humble apartments in tenements. By the 
third century the structure of the Mass — the word derives from the Latin missa, meaning 
“sent” or “finished” — had become clear. A clear distinction was maintained between the 
Liturgy of the Catechumens, consisting of the reading of Epistles, Gospels, prayers, and 
hymns, which those under instruction could attend, and the Liturgy of the Faithful, the ac-
tual Eucharist — from a Greek word for “thanks” — or sacrifice of bread and wine, to which 
only baptized Christians were admitted. The catechumens were required to leave before the 
Eucharist, and could only hear but not see the Liturgy from an adjoining room. No altar was 
used, only a table brought in for the Eucharist and another table to receive offerings.

7. 
Make up questions covering the main points of the text given in ex. 6, ask your fellow 

students to answer them. 

8. read and translate the following text.

TexT

The Edict of Milan brought about immediate and far-reaching transformations in the life 

of the Church through the new relationship between church and state it established. Given 
the strong interest and active role of Constantine, Christianity became an official religion, 
inheriting the splendors of the dethroned Roman gods. Although no complete colossal statue 
of the emperor is still preserved, the solemn Colossus of Barletta, a bronze statue probably 
representing one of his successors in the fifth or sixth century, clearly indicates the majestic 
and superhuman authority accorded to the person of the emperor in early Christian times. No 
longer divine, he was nonetheless sacred—the Unconquered Sun, the Vicar of Christ on earth.

 The newly official religion, encouraged as an effective arm of imperial administra-

tion, soon took on imperial magnificence. It could no longer aim at small and intimate 
congregations bound together by no other ties than those of Christian love. Huge crowds 
of worshipers had now to be accommodated and given access to sacred places and to the 
sacraments of the Church. Enclosed and roofed spaces were needed in great numbers. In 
rapid succession and under direct imperial patronage, scores of churches rose through-
out Rome and other great cities of the Empire, especially Milan and Constantinople, 
and at sacred sites in the Holy Land.

A model for these new buildings was needed. Although the Christians had no com-

punction about utilizing architectural elements taken from pagan structures, the temples 
Part I. Byzantine Art

themselves, even when not too small for the crowds of worshipers, were manifestly unsuit-
able; their very sites were regarded with abhorrence. The obvious solution was the Roman 
basilica, or meeting hall, which existed in every inhabited Roman center. There was no strict 
uniformity of plan for these meeting halls. Many Roman basilicas, some quite large ones, 
were simple halls with no side aisles; most were entered along one side, and had apses at 
either end. One apse soon proved convenient for the installation of the clergy and the en-
thronement of the bishop, but the entrance had to be placed at the opposite short end. The 
early portable communion table was replaced by a fixed altar, which had to be visible from 
a considerable distance and accessible to all worshipers at Communion. The long row of 
columns on either side of the nave played a double role in dramatizing the approach of the 
faithful to the altar and in segregating, by means of curtains hung between the columns, the 
catechumens from those who could witness the Mass of the Faithful.

The colonnades characteristically supported a lofty wall pierced by a clerestory. The 

roof was usually of an open timber construction, as was the case in so many ancient build-
ings. The large number of churches begun in the reign of Constantine required columns in 
great numbers and at great speed. It may be fairly doubted whether, in Constantinian Rome, 
it was possible either to produce so many or to order them from other regions. However, 
temples and other monuments of the Roman past offered an inexhaustible supply. Borrowed 
columns were thus uncritically installed in the new basilicas, with little or no regard for con-
sistency of style, color, or size. Granite and marble columns, Corinthian and Ionic capitals, 
were placed side by side; capitals were sometimes set on columns they did not fit.

Saint Peter’s was the largest and grandest of the Constantinian basilicas, in fact the 

largest church building in all Christendom. It differed from most other basilicas not only in 
its stupendous size — an inner length of 368 feet — but also in its very nature as a combined 
basilica and martyrium. The apse enshrined the tomb of Peter under a marble canopy sup-
ported by four spiral columns. In order to accommodate the crowds of visitors to the tomb, 
a large hall—the transept — was erected at right angles to the nave between the nave and 
the apse. Before the transept came the so-called triumphal arch, a common feature of Early 
Christian basilicas. The altar, at the head of the nave, was probably movable. The columns 
of the basilica were either Corinthian or Composite and of many different materials, includ-
ing green marble, yellow marble, red granite, and gray granite. They were closely spaced, 
and supported a continuous, straight entablature. As in the Basilica Ulpia, Saint Peter’s had 
double side aisles; the colonnade separating them supported arches. The building was not 
completed when Constantine died in 337 nor for some time thereafter. It is not known what 
wall decorations were originally planned; the frescoes covering the nave walls between the 
colonnade and the clerestory were painted in the fifth century, but the half-dome of the apse 
was filled with an immense pictorial composition in mosaic.

Initially, there was certainly no suggestion that the transept plan symbolized the Cross, as it 

did in later times. The plan of Santa Sabina, erected in Rome from 422 to 432, is more typical of 
Early Christian churches. It was built without a transept so that the triumphal arch embraced the 
apse directly. Throughout the Early Christian period, the apse was used only by the clergy, and 
often it contained a marble chair for the celebrant. Arches were substituted for entablatures, as at 
Santa Sabina, in the course of the fifth century. None of the Constantinian basilicas survive in 
their original state. Saint Peter’s, in fact, was demolished section by section in the Renaissance, 
to be replaced by a new building. The beautifully restored interior of Santa Sabina is almost the 
only one that still conveys the appearance of an Early Christian basilica in Rome, but it is unusu-
al in having carefully matched Corinthian columns — purloined as usual.
Unit 1. The Earliest Christian Art

All Early Christian buildings were devoid of external decoration, presenting unrelieved 

brick walls of the utmost simplicity. The pilgrim to Saint Peter’s, for example, arrived at the 
blank, outer wall of an atrium — in reality a large peristyle court — then proceeded to the 
narthex or vestibule, and finally emerged into the richly colored nave with its splendid col-
umns and bright frescoes, scores of hanging lamps, jeweled altar cloth, gold and silver ves-
sels of the Mass, and clergy in gorgeous vestments — a far cry from the simplicity of the first 
centuries of Christianity. The processional principle on which the church was laid out has 
often been compared with the basic plan of the Egyptian temple, but it should be remem-
bered that a similar processional principle governed the alignment of spaces and structures 
in the Roman forum as well, especially that of Trajan.

 
‰ aFter-reading taSkS

1. Can you answer the following question?

1. What transformations did the Edict of Milan bring about? What was the role of 

Constantine in Christianity? What status did Constantine acquire?

2. Where did huge crowds of worshipers have to be accommodated? Who patronized the 

rise of churches throughout Rome and other great cities of the Empire?

3. What was the purpose of an apse? What was the plan of Roman basilica like? What was 

the purpose of the altar? What role did the columns on either side of the nave play?

4. Where did the Christians take the material for their churches? Were the elements of the 

columns in keeping with their order? What did the apse enshrine? What role did the 
transept play? What was a common feature of Early Christian basilicas? How were the 
walls of Saint Peter’s basilica decorated? 

5. What was one of the typical examples of Early Christian churches? What was there in 

the apse of the Early Christian period? 

6. Did Early Christian buildings have external decoration? Where did the pilgrim to Saint 

Peter’s proceed from to? Whose processions did it resemble? What was the basic plan of 
the church compared with?

2. give russian equivalents of the following.

Architectural elements; to have no compunction about smth.; pagan structures; to be 

built without a transept; between the colonnade and the clerestory; a pictorial composition; 
the catechumens; double side aisles; a marble canopy; supported arches; the nave and the 
apse; to offer an inexhaustible supply; the basic plan; repertory of form and content; the 
sacraments of the Church; in rapid succession; to regard with abhorrence; the Roman 
basilica; the installation of the clergy; the enthronement of the bishop; processional 
principle; a large peristyle court; communion table; strict uniformity of plan.

3. give english equivalents of the following.

Триумфальная арка; святые места; бронзовая статуя; под непосредственным 

покровительством императора; внешнее убранство; христианские общины; новообращенные; 
сверхчеловеческий власть; паства; длинный ряд колонн; использовать 
элементы языческих строений; переносной престол; подход верующих к 
алтарю; литургия верующих; неисчерпаемый запас; цилиндрический свод; под-
Part I. Byzantine Art

держивать высокую стену; ионические капители; древние строения; сочетать базилику 
и матрий; верхний ряд окон; крестный ход; прямоугольные каменные глыбы; 
последовательность стиля; неф; разрушать здания; мраморный навес.

4. Match the words and their definitions. 

1) transept 
2) martyrium
3) triclinium 
4) catechumen 
5) Liturgy 
6) basilica 
7) narthex 

a) is a church which is rectangular in shape and has a rounded end.
b) a person who is receiving instruction in preparation for Christian 

baptism or confirmation.

c) is a particular form of religious service, usually one that is set and 

approved by a branch of the Christian Church.

d)  a shrine associated with the life or cult of a saint, often symmetrical 

in plan i.e. centrally planned.

e) an antechamber at the western entrance of an early Christian 

churche separated off by a railing.

f) a dining table with couches along three sides, used in ancient 

Rome.

g) in a cross-shaped church is either of the two parts forming the arms 

of the cross shape, projecting at right angles from the nave.

5. expand on the following.

The Epistle; Jericho; Bethlehem; Eucharist; Pontius Pilate.

6. read the text. translate it. discuss it in the dialogue with your fellow students.

A considerable number of variations could occur in the basilican plan, depending on 

the purpose of the building and on local traditions and requirements. An entirely different 
arrangement, the circular plan, was also widely used. A handsome early example is the Church 
of Santa Costanza, built in Rome about 350. Circular churches, unsuitable for celebrating 
Mass before large congregations, were almost always erected as martyria; this one was destined 
to contain the tomb of Princess Constantia, daughter of Constantine. Basically, of course, the 
circular plan is that of the Greek tholos type and of its lineal descendant, the Pantheon, but 
the Early Christian circular church was usually enveloped by a circular side aisle, known as 
the ambulatory, which was intended for pilgrimages and for ceremonial processions. In cross 
section such a church, with its elevated clerestory, would suggest a basilica, save only for the 
central dome. In Santa Costanza the rich mosaic decoration is still preserved in the barrel 
vault of the ambulatory, although that of the central portion of the church has disappeared. 
The coupled Composite columns in granite create an impression of outward radiation from 
the central space, which is enhanced by the swelling, convex frieze of the entablatures.

Any number of variations were eventually possible in the circular plan, such as its 

expansion into radiating apses and chapels in the sixth century. A circular martyrium could 
also be combined with a basilica, as in the great church commissioned by Constantine for the 
Holy Sepulcher in Jerusalem. Perhaps the most spectacular fusion of a central martyrium 
with the basilican plan was the Church of Saint Simeon Stylites, built about 470 at Qal’at 
Saman in Syria. This consists of four distinct basilicas, three with splendid entrances and the 
fourth with three apses, radiating outward from a central octagon, which enshrined under 
an octagonal timber roof the pillar on the top of which Saint Simeon spent the last three 
and a half decades of his life. Syrian architecture is far richer in carved elements than its 
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