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Реализация лексических и грамматических единиц в профессионально-ориентированных текстах (англ. яз.)

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Учебное пособие рассчитано для студентов технических специальностей и отвечает требованиям ФГОС СПО Российской Федерации. Пособие включает два составных элемента (модуля): Topics & vocabulary и Grammar practice. Все модули состоят из разделов (Units). В начале каждого раздела первого модуля дается список лексики, тема, вопросы для вовлечения обучающегося в данную тематику. Затем идет основной текст, связанный с изучаемой темой, вопросы, контролирующие понимание текста, и/или упражнения, направленные на отработку навыков говорения. Каждый раздел включает в себя профессионально-ориентированные тексты для перевода с английского языка на русский со словарем. Второй модуль направлен на развитие грамматических навыков, включает грамматические упражнения, направленных на отработку и закрепление материала.
Щербакова, И. В. Реализация лексических и грамматических единиц в профессионально-ориентированных текстах (англ. яз.) / И. В. Щербакова. - Москва : Директ-Медиа, 2020. - 191 с. - ISBN 978-5-4499-1625-9. - Текст : электронный. - URL: https://znanium.com/catalog/product/1973516 (дата обращения: 19.05.2024). – Режим доступа: по подписке.
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И. В. Щербакова 

РЕАЛИЗАЦИЯ ЛЕКСИЧЕСКИХ  
И ГРАММАТИЧЕСКИХ  
ЕДИНИЦ В ПРОФЕССИОНАЛЬНО-
ОРИЕНТИРОВАННЫХ ТЕКСТАХ  
(АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК) 

Учебное пособие для СПО 

Москва 
Берлин 
2020 

УДК 811.111(075) 
ББК 81.432.1я723
 Щ61 
Рецензенты 
Т. В. Евсюкова, доктор филологических наук, профессор 
кафедры лингвистики и межкультурной коммуникации 
Ростовского государственного экономического университета 
(РИНХ) 
Н. В. Ковальчук, кандидат филологических наук, доцент кафедры 
«Иностранные языки» Донского государственного технического 
университета 
Щербакова, И. В. 

Щ61 
Реализация 
лексических 
и 
грамматических 
  единиц 
в 
профессионально-ориентированных 
текстах 

(английский язык) : учебное пособие для СПО  / И. В. Щербакова. 
– Москва ; Берлин : Директ-Медиа, 2020. – 191 с.

ISBN 978-5-4499-1625-9 

Учебное пособие рассчитано для студентов  технических специальностей 
и отвечает требованиям ФГОС СПО  Российской Федерации.

Пособие включает два составных элемента (модуля): Topics & 
vocabulary и Grammar practice. Все модули состоят из разделов (Units). В 
начале каждого раздела первого модуля дается список лексики, тема, 
вопросы для вовлечения обучающегося в данную тематику. Затем идет 
основной текст, связанный с изучаемой темой, вопросы, контролирующие 
понимание текста, и/или упражнения, направленные на отработку навыков 
говорения. 
Каждый 
раздел 
включает 
в 
себя 
профессионально-
ориентированные тексты для перевода с английского языка на русский со 
словарем. Второй модуль направлен на развитие грамматических навыков, 
включает грамматические упражнения, направленных на отработку и 
закрепление материала. 

УДК 811.111(075) 
ББК 81.432.1я723

ISBN 978-5-4499-1625-9
© Щербакова И. В., текст, 2020
© Издательство «Директ-Медиа», оформление, 2020

Оглавление 

Предисловие ................................................................................................... 5 

Module 1 ........................................................................................................... 6 

Unit 1. ARCHITECTURE: ITS FORMS AND FUNCTIONS ................. 6 

Unit 2.  THE PROFESSION OF AN ARCHITECT ................................ 11 

Unit 3. EARLY RUSSIAN ARCHITECTURE ........................................ 14 

Unit 4. CATHEDRAL OF THE ASSUMPTION (USPENSKY) ............ 18 

Unit 5.  EGYPTIAN ARCHITECTURE .................................................. 22 

Unit 6. GREAT SPHINX ........................................................................... 26 

Unit 7. GREEK ARCHITECTURE ........................................................... 29 

Unit 8. ROMAN ARCHITECTURE ........................................................ 34 

Unit 9. ROMANESQUE ARCHITECTURE ........................................... 39 

Unit 10. GOTHIC ARCHITECTURE ...................................................... 42 

Unit 11. THE RENAISSANCE ................................................................. 47 

Unit 12. BAROQUE ................................................................................... 52 

Unit 13. ROCOCO ..................................................................................... 56 

Unit 14. CONSTRUCTIVISM .................................................................. 59 

Unit 15. RICHARD MEIER ...................................................................... 62 

Unit 16. VITRUVIUS ................................................................................. 64 

Unit 17. CHARLES RENNIE MACKINTOSH ...................................... 67 

Unit 18. LEONARDO DA VINCI............................................................ 69 

Unit 19. IMHOTEP .................................................................................... 71 

Unit 20. ANDREA PALLADIO ............................................................... 74 

Module 2 ......................................................................................................... 77 

I. Порядок слов ........................................................................................ 77 

II. Существительное................................................................................ 82 

III. Артикль ............................................................................................... 85 

IV. Местоимения some, any, no, every и их производные .............. 93 

3 

V. Прилагательное .................................................................................. 97 

VI. Предлоги ........................................................................................... 100

VII. Числительные ................................................................................. 105

VIII. Местоименные прилагательные ............................................... 109

IX. Глагол to be ........................................................................................ 113

X. Глагол to have ..................................................................................... 118 

XI. Активный залог (the active voice) ................................................. 121

1. The Present Simple Tense ............................................................. 121

2. The Past Simple Tense ................................................................... 123

3. The Future Simple Tense................................................................ 126

4. The Present Continuous Tense ...................................................... 127

5. The Past Continuous Tense ........................................................... 131

6. The Future Continuous Tense ....................................................... 134

7. The Present Perfect Tense .............................................................. 136

8. The Past Perfect Tense .................................................................... 139

9. The Future Perfect Tense ................................................................ 141

10. The Present Perfect Continuous Tense ....................................... 144

11. The Past Perfect Continuous Tense ............................................ 146

12. The Future Perfect Continuous Tense ........................................ 149

XII. Страдательный залог (the passive voice) ................................... 151

XIII. Conditionals (условные предложения) ..................................... 155

XIV. Модальные глаголы (modals) ..................................................... 158

XV. Косвенная речь ............................................................................... 175

Приложение ................................................................................................ 183 

Таблица неправильных глаголов ........................................................... 183 

Рекомендуемая литература ..................................................................... 189 

Предисловие 

Пособие предназначено для лиц, имеющих базовую началь-
ную подготовку по английскому языку, овладевших лексическим и 
грамматическим минимумом для осуществления речевой деятель-
ности.  
Целью пособия является развитие речевой профессиональ-
ной деятельности при изучении английского языка. Реализация 
этой цели осуществляется благодаря специально подобранным 
аутентичным текстам и упражнениям, методически организован-
ным таким образом, чтобы способствовать формированию у обу-
чающихся коммуникативной компетенции в профессиональном 
общении. Тексты пособия адаптированы, переработаны из совре-
менных английских изданий (журнальные и газетные статьи, учеб-
ные пособия, сайты) и отражают богатство, разнообразие, 
вариативность современного английского языка в профессиональ-
ной деятельности. Представленный в пособии материал углубляет 
знания обучающихся по специальности «Архитектура».  
Учебное пособие содержит два модуля: лексический и грам-
матический. Лексический модуль содержит 20 тем. Каждая тема 
включает в себя глоссарий и систему упражнений, активизирую-
щие все лексические, грамматические и теоретические знания и 
умения, приобретенные в процессе работы с каждой темой. Все 
разделы имеют единую структуру, что позволяет осуществлять по-
этапное, целенаправленное формирование языковых речевых ком-
муникативных навыков и умений.  
Грамматический модуль предназначен для студентов, совер-
шенствующих знания грамматики английского языка. Он содержит 
15 тем. Каждая тема включает систему упражнений, направленных 
на закрепление грамматических знаний, а также на развитие моно-
логической и диалогической речи. 
 
 
 

5 

Module 1 

Unit 1 
ARCHITECTURE: ITS FORMS AND FUNCTIONS 

1. Read the text. 
Words and word combinations: 
architecture – архитектура 
consideration – рассмотрение 
aesthetical – эстетический 
evolve – развиваться 
expression – выражение 
consequently – следовательно 
evident – очевидный 
repetition – повторение 
necessity – необходимость 
harmonious – гармоничный 
 
Architecture: its forms and functions 
Architecture is the art or science of planning, building and struc-
tures. Without consideration of structural principles, materials, social 
and economic requirements a building cannot take form. But without 
aesthetical quality inherent in it's form a building cannot be considered 
as a work of architectural as well. 
 

 

6 

From the very beginning of construction in human history lots of 
architectural skills, systems and theories have been evolved for the con-
struction of the buildings, which have housed nations and generations 
of people in any kind of their activity. Writings on architecture are al-
most as old asw riting itself. Books on the theory of architecture, on the 
art of buildings, and on the aesthetical view of buildings exist in great 
number. The oldest book, which sets forth the principles, upon which 
buildings should be designed and which aim is to guide the architect, is 
the work of Markus Vitruvius Pollio written in the first century B. C. 
Architecture is an art. It's nowadays expression should be creative 
and consequently new. The heritage of the past cannot be ignored, but it 
must be expressed in modern terms. There exists an evident paradox in 
the coexistence of change and survival in every period of human civili-
sation. This paradox of change and repetition is clearly illustrated in 
any architectural style. 
Architecture is also the style or manner of building in a particular 
country or period of history. There are widely known examples of Goth-
ic architecture all round the globe. During many centuries mankind 
admires the architecture of ancient Greece or Roman Empire as well. 
Nearly two thousand years ago the Roman architect Vitruvius 
listed three basic factors in architecture. They are convenience, strength 
and beauty. These three factors have been present and are always inter-
related in the best constructions till the 21st century. No true architect 
could think of any of them without almost automatically considering 
the other two as well. Thus, architectural design entails not only the ne-
cessity to study various solutions for convenience, structure, and ap-
pearance as three separate processes. Architectural design also includes 
the necessity to keep in mind the constant interaction of these factors. 
It's impossible for an architect first plan a building from the point of 
view of convenience, and then make the design of a strong construction 
around his plan to shelter it. Then, as a final touch, try to adjust and 
decorate the whole to make it pretty. Any design evolving from such 
kind of work will produce only a confused, incoherent, and unsatisfac-
tory building. When speaking about any truly great building we cannot 
but say that every element in it has a triple implication or significance. 
This triple nature of architectural design is one of the reasons 
why architecture is a difficult art. It needs some unique type of imagina-
tion as well as long years of training and experience to make a designer 

7 

capable of getting requite in the light of these three factors use, con-
struction, and aesthetic effect simultaneously. The designer must have a 
good knowledge as of engineering so of building materials. This 
knowledge will enable him to create economically strong and practical 
construction. The designer, in addition, must possess the creative imag-
ination, which will enable him to integrate the plan and the construction 
into the harmonious whole. The architect's feeling of satisfaction in 
achieving such integration is one of his/her (their) greatest rewards. 
2. Answer the following questions. 
1. What is architecture? 
2. What is the oldest book to set forth the principles of construc-
tion? 
3. How should mankind deal with the heritage of the past? 
4. What architecture are widely known all round the globe? 
5. What architecture does mankind admire during many centu-
ries? 
6. What three basic factors in architecture were listed nearly two 
thousand years ago? 
7. Why architecture is a difficult art? 
8. What can we say about any truly great building? 
9. What integration must an architect achieve? 
10. Why the designer must possess the creative imagination? 
3. Read the text again and find out if the following statements 
are true or false. 
1) 
There are not widely known examples of Gothic architecture 
all round the globe. 
2) 
This triple nature of architectural design is one of the reasons 
why architecture is not a difficult art. 
3) 
These three factors have been present and are always interre-
lated in the best constructions till the 22thcentury. 
4) 
The oldest book is not the work of Markus Vitruvius Pollio 
written in the first century B. C. 
5) 
Without consideration of structural principles, materials, so-
cial and economic requirements a building can take form. 
6) 
The designer, in addition, must possess the creative imagina-
tion, which will enable him to integrate the plan and the construction 
into the harmonious whole. 

8 

7) 
The designer must have a bad knowledge as of engineering 
so of building materials. 
8) 
This paradox of change and repetition is not illustrated in 
any architectural style. 
9) 
Books on the theory of architecture, on the art of buildings, 
and on the aesthetical view of buildings exist in great number. 
10) 
Architecture is not the art or science of planning, building 
and structures. 
4. Give the English equivalents to the Russian word combina-
tions. 
1) архитектура – это искусство или наука о планировании, 
социальные и экономические требования, архитектурные навыки, 
строительство, системы и теории для строительства зданий. 
2) основные факторы архитектуры; удобство, сила и красота; 
архитектурный дизайн; иметь в виду; с точки зрения удобства; в 
качестве последнего штриха; архитектура является сложным искус-
ством; уникальный тип воображения; обладать хорошими знания-
ми в области инженерных и строительных материалов. 
5. Complete the following sentences using the text above. 
1) 
Its nowadays expression should … 
2) 
This triple nature of architectural design … 
3) 
Architectural design also includes the … 
4) 
Any design evolving from such kind … 
5) 
The designer, in addition, must possess … 
6) 
These three factors have … 
7) 
… buildings exist in great number. 
6. Match the terms and their definitions. 

1. Science 
a) the work of building or making something,
especially buildings, bridges, etc.

2. Construction 
b) a person whose job is building things, especially
houses

3. Architecture 

c) the careful study of the structure and behavior
of the physical world, especially by watching, 
measuring, and doing experiments

4. Building 

d) the art and practice of designing and making 
buildings 

9 

5. Skill 
e) a person who plans new buildings and is responsi-
ble for making sure that they are built properly

6. Architect 
f) a structure with walls and a roof, such as a house 
or factory

7. Builder 
g) an ability to do an activity or job well, especially 
because you have practiced it

8.Architect
h) the state of being convenient

9. Design 
i) the degree to which something is strong or power-
ful

10. Convenience 
k) a person who plans new buildings and is respon-
sible for making sure that they are built properly

11. Shelter 
l) (the process of getting) knowledge or skill from 
doing, seeing, or feeling things

12. Strength 
m) (a building designed to give) protection from 
bad weather, danger, or attack

13. Art 
n) to make or draw plans for something, for exam-
ple clothes or buildings

14. Experience 
o) the making of objects, images, music, etc. that
are beautiful or that express feelings

 
 
 

10 

Unit 2  
THE PROFESSION OF AN ARCHITECT 

 
1. Read the text. 
Words and word combinations: 
architect – архитектор 
supervision – надзор 
cumulative – совокупный 
preparation – подготовка 
improvement – улучшение 
gridiron – рашпер 
conflict – конфликт 
 
The profession of an architect 
The architect is a person trained and experienced in the design of 
buildings and the coordination and supervision of all aspects of the con-
struction of buildings. 
When the architect designs a structure, he uses the cumulative 
knowledge of centuries. Working to the architect's design are many con-
sultant experts – structural engineers, services engineers and other sub-
contracted specialists. The architect function now extend into town 
planning and work activities that need buildings. 
Town planning or urbanism is the preparation of plans for the 
regulated growth and improvement of towns or the organization of land 
and buildings for group living. It is a cooperative process in which ar-
chitects, economists, engineers, lawyers, landscape architects, doctors, 
sociologists, surveyors or topographers and other specialists take part. 
In town planning there are different street patterns: gridiron, ra-
dial, ring and functional (or organic). 
According to the International Union of Architect (IUA or UIA) at 
present there are more than 800,000 fully qualified architects in the 
world. In the highly developing countries there is one architect per two 
or three thousand people. In the developer countries there is only one 
architect per 500,000 or 1,000,000 people. 
 

11 

 
 
The architect's sphere of knowledge is constantly expanding. He 
has to combine art, advanced technology, science and economics in his 
work. The structure an architect creates should give us pleasure, sense 
of beauty. 
The main problem facing the architect today is to avoid any con-
flict with nature and landmarks of by-gone days. 
2. Answer the following questions. 
1. What are the architect's functions? 
2. What specialists help the architect to design structures? 
3. What is town planning? 
4. What specialists take part in town design? 
5. How is the architect's sphere of knowledge expanding at pre-
sent? 
6. What is the main problem facing the architect today? 
3. Read the text again and find out if the following statements 
are true or false. 
1) It is a cooperative process in which architects, economists, 
engineers, lawyers, landscape architects, doctors, sociologists, surveyors 
or topographers and other specialists don’t take part.    
2) The architect function now extend into town planning and 
work activities that need buildings. 
3) In the highly developing countries there is not one architect 
per two or three thousand people. 
4) He has to combine art, advanced technology, science and 
economics in his work. 

12 

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