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How to build a better vocabulary = Как улучшить свой словарный запас

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Эта книга является практическим пособием по развитию навыков увеличения словарного запаса английского языка. Она представляет собой свого рода этимологический словарь широко распространенных слов с рядом тестов для закрепления материала. В книге представлены несколько способов, позволяющие легче запоминать новые слова: работа со словарем, морфологический разбор слов, знакомство с рядом интересных исторических фактов, анализ заимствований из других языков, способы запоминания слов при чтении и устном общении. Овладение методологией запоминания новых слов позволит учащимся быстрее и эффективнее заучивать их и в дальнейшем использовать эту новую лексику в деловых и дружеских контактах, в развитии своего кругозора, при подготовке к сдаче международных вступительных экзаменов в высшие учебные заведения и учебе в них.
Матюшенков, В. С. How to build a better vocabulary = Как улучшить свой словарный запас : учебно-методическое пособие / В. С. Матюшенков. - Москва : ФЛИНТА, 2023. - 256 с. - ISBN 978-5-9765-5228-9. - Текст : электронный. - URL: https://znanium.com/catalog/product/1962478 (дата обращения: 25.05.2024). – Режим доступа: по подписке.
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В.С. Матюшенков


HOW TO BUILD A BETTER VOCABULARY

КАК УЛУЧШИТЬ СВОЙ СЛОВАРНЫЙ ЗАПАС

Учебно-методическое пособие










Москва Издательство «ФЛИНТА» 2023

УДК 372.881.111.1
ББК 81.432.1
     М35







                Матюшенков В.С.




М35 How to build a better vocabulary. = Как улучшить свой словарный запас :     учебно-методическое   пособие / В.С. Матюшенков.    -
    Москва : ФЛИНТА, 2023. - 256 с. - ISBN 978-5-9765-5228-9. - Текст : электронный.

        Эта книга является практическим пособием по развитию навыков увеличения словарного запаса английского языка. Она представляет собой свого рода этимологический словарь широко распространенных слов с рядом тестов для закрепления материала. В книге представлены несколько способов, позволяющие легче запоминать новые слова: работа со словарем, морфологический разбор слов, знакомство с рядом интересных исторических фактов, анализ заимствований из других языков, способы запоминания слов при чтении и устном общении.
        Овладение методологией запоминания новых слов позволит учащимся быстрее и эффективнее заучивать их и в дальнейшем использовать эту новую лексику в деловых и дружеских контактах, в развитии своего кругозора, при подготовке к сдаче международных вступительных экзаменов в высшие учебные заведения и учебе в них.

УДК 372.881.111.1
ББК 81.432.1










ISBN 978-5-9765-5228-9

                  © Матюшенков В.С., 2023
                  © Издательство «ФЛИНТА», 2023

                Contents





How to Build a Better Vocabulary?.............................................................4
Dictionaries .................................................................................5
Recognizing Words Often Confused .............................................................8
Word Formation...............................................................................38
      Latin Prefixes ........................................................................40
      Greek Prefixes.........................................................................46
      Number Prefixes .......................................................................49
      Greek Numerical Prefixes ..............................................................50
      Greek Quantitative Prefixes ...........................................................51
      Greek Miscellaneous Prefixes...........................................................51
      Latin Suffixes.........................................................................54
      Greek Suffixes ........................................................................55
      More Adjective and Noun Suffixes and Prefixes .........................................55
      More Verb Suffixes and Prefixes .......................................................57
      Word Elements .........................................................................58
      Old and Middle English Roots and Derivatives...........................................60
      Latin Roots and Derivatives ...........................................................75
      Greek Roots and Derivatives ......................................................... 120
      Other Foreign Roots ..................................................................138
Learned Words ..............................................................................152
Borrowed Words .............................................................................195
Words from Names and Places and Things    out of the Past...................................202
Technical and Specialized Words ............................................................211
Reading.....................................................................................223
Determining a Word’s Meaning through Context Clues and Word Parts Analysis .................226
Interesting Word Origins....................................................................230
Other Methods to Determine a Word’s Meaning ................................................235
Figurative Language ........................................................................236
Some Notes on Writing.......................................................................238
Conversation ...............................................................................240
Some Specific Words and Idiomatic Expressions...............................................246
Final Test .................................................................................250
Bibliograpy ................................................................................255

3

                How to Build a Better Vocabulary?




     Success in school, business, management, industry, government, and the professions often depends on a superior vocabulary. That is why, in colleges and reading centers throughout the world, students are striving to develop increased reading skills and larger vocabularies.
     Each person has several vocabularies. The vocabulary which you use most frequently, your speaking vocabulary is the smallest. The next largest vocabulary which you possess is your writing vocabulary. In writing you are more likely to use familiar words which you generally do not use in conversation. The largest of your vocabularies is your recognition vocabulary, consisting of words which you understand when you see them in print or hear them spoken.
     The scope of our language is amazing. Webster’s New International Dictionary contains over 600,000 entries. Yet the average high school student has slightly more than 15,000 words at his command; the average college graduate has some 25,000 words to use; even many professional people utilize only 40,000 to 50,000 words. Regardless of whether you now have 15,000 or 50,000 words at your command, you can see that it is possible to expand your vocabulary greatly.
     Numerous studies indicate that there is a strong correlation between size of vocabulary and intellectual and academic achievements. Similar evidence shows a relationship between vocabulary and success in the professions and in business.

4

                Dictionaries





     In vocabulary development, the dictionary is an essential tool. The English-speaking world has the finest dictionaries, a somewhat curious fact when you consider that we have never formalized the business of compiling them. The many excellent existing dictionaries vary with regard to special features. Some dictionaries contain a gazetteer giving basic information about the countries and cities of the world. Others include such useful information as: a list of abbreviations used in writing and printing; a list of famous names with biographical data; a list of common English given names, their meaning, etymology (derivation), foreign language equivalents, and diminutives. There may also be sections on spelling, punctuation, grammar, compounds, capitals, and preparation of copy for the press.
     The largest dictionaries - those containing over 300,000 words - are called unabridged dictionaries. Unabridged means that a dictionary is not a cut-down version of some larger dictionary. The best known and most available are:
     The Oxford English Dictionary, Oxford University Press, New York
     The Random House Dictionary of he English Language: The Unabridged Edition, Random House, New York
     Webster’s Third New International Dictionary, G. and C. Merriam Company, Springfield, Massachusetts
     An unabridged dictionary has entries for about two to three times as many words as a college dictionary, and the entries are likely to be longer and more detailed, and to distinguish finer shades of meaning. Webster’s Third and the “O.E.D.” (the Oxford) also provide actual quotations showing the use of a word.
     The most practical dictionary for everyday use is the college dictionary. Dictionaries of this kind usually contain entries for between 100,000 and 160,000 words. Because it is easier to revise a college dictionary than an unabridged dictionary, the former is more likely to be up-to-date, The college dictionaries listed below are reputable and well-known.
     American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, American Heritage Publishing Company, Inc., New York, and Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston
     The Random House College Dictionary, Random House, New York
     Webster’s New Collegiate Dictionary, G. and C. Merriam Company, Springfield, Massachussetts

5

     Webster’s New World Dictionary of the American Language, Second College Edition, Complete Reference Edition, World Publishing Company, Cleveland
     Dictionaries also vary in their arrangement, comprehensiveness, and thoroughness. For purposes of vocabulary development, a pocket dictionary will not suffice. You should have a good desk or collegiate-type dictionary, such as Webster’s New Collegiate Dictionary, or Funk and Wagnalll’s New Desk Standard Dictionary, or the Winston College Dictionary. For an exhaustive listing you will have to refer to an unabridged work such as Webster’s New International Dictionary or Oxford English Dictionary. There are special dictionaries, such as the biographical, the geographical, and other dictionaries of rhymes, etymology, synonyms, antonyms, and slang.
     The English language today, which is spoken as a first language by over three hundred million people, has hundreds of varieties within it. The four major varieties of English are British, American, Australian and Canadian English. For example, in common speech, some 4,000 words are used differently in the U.S.A. from Great Britain. That’s a very large number indeed. So a dictionary studying different varieties is also a valuable tool for teachers, students and readers of English language.
     In addition to the general dictionaries of the English language, there are many special books that are useful to anyone who does much writing. Among these are books of synonyms. They help you to find just the right word when you are in doubt as to which word to use, and they help you to vary your choice of words so that you do not have to keep using the same word over and over. Three of the best known of these books of synonyms are listed below.
     Fernard, James C., Funk and Wagnalls Standard Handbook of Fynonyms, Antonyms, and Prepositions
     Roger’s Thesaurus of the English Language in Dictionary Form
     Webster’s Dictionary of Synonyms
     For the most efficient use of your dictionary consult the introductory section. This contains a guide to pronunciation, a list of abbreviations used, and various explanatory notes.
     Your dictionary is a basic key to vocabulary development. Yet encyclopedias and other reference works should not be overlooked. Your familiarity with these sources will provide a wealth of enjoyment and education for you.
     When you are looking up a word in your dictionary read through the entire list until you find the meaning that exactly fits the context in which the word appears in your book.

6

The richer your understanding of all the meanings of words, the greater will be your power to understand and use language.

     It is a good idea also to have a personal vocabulary-building program:
     1.       Keep a vocabulary notebook. Jot down the new words you encounter. Record the essential for each word: spelling, part of speech, pronunciation, definition.
     2.       Review the words in your notebook. Take a few minutes each day to study them. Set a realistic goal of learning a certain number of new words per week.
     3.       Study the words actively. Active study means that you use as many senses as possible in studying the word. Say the word. Listen to yourself saying it. See the word in your mind’s eye. Then make sure you use the word as soon as possible in conversation or in writing. A rule of thumb is that if you use a word twice it is yours.
     4.       Invent your own memory devices. Try to associate the word with other similar words you know. Create a mental image that relates to the word and helps you remember its meaning.
     5.       Work with different dictionaries. The four most notable English dictionaries are: Longman Dictionary of Contemporary, Cambridge International Dictionary of English, Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary, Collins Cobuild English Dictionary.
     6       If you don’t have a dictionary at hand, you still have two excellent strategies that can help you make sense of the word: context clues and word part analysis.

7

                Recognizing Words Often Confused




     When choosing the word that best expresses the intent, some writers and speakers mistake one word for another similar one. Some words are often confused because of their similarity in spelling and pronunciation. In most cases these words have little connection and their meanings are entirely separate. Here is the list of the commonly confused words:


            Abjure, Adjure


abjure: repudiate, renounce or reject with solemnity; to swear off the use of, to give up adjure: to entreat, to appeal to solemnly or earnestly; adjuration means an earnest appeal


            Accept, Except


accept - to receive; except - to leave out


            Access, Assess, Excess


Access - a way to get inside; assess - to evaluate; excess - too much


            Acrid, Acrimonious


Both come from the same Latin root and mean bitter, but acrid is reserved for taste or smell, acrimonious for quarrels or discussions.


            Adapt, Adopt


Adapt - to adjust to something; adopt - to make something your own


            Addition, Edition


Addition - something added; edition - a particular published book


            Adverse, Averse to


Adverse - opposing; averse to - reluctant


            Affect, Effect


Affect, always a verb, means to influence.
Effect, as a verb, means to bring about as a result.


            Advice, Advise


Advice - opinion as to what should be done; advise - to offer advice to

8

            Aggravate, Annoy, Irritate


Connoisseurs use aggravate only in the sense of making a situation worse or more severe. Alleviate is the actual and the etymological opposite of aggravate (levis, light; gravis, heavy). Many use aggravate when they really mean annoy, exasperate, or irritate.


            Allude, Elude, Refer


Allude - to draw attention in a general manner, elude - to defy or baffle, refer - to mention specifically


            Alltogether, All together


Altogether - entirely, all together - everyone or everything in one place


            Ambiguous, Equivocal


Though generally used interchangeably to mean having two or more possible interpretations (ambiguous: “going off in two, ambi, directions”; equivocal: equal voice, “double talk”), the nice distinction made is that while ambiguity is always unintentional, equivocation may be purposeful, intended to deceive. Anybody can be ambiguous; you have to be clever to be equivocal - a diplomat, for instance, an official spokesman, etc.
In the negative unequivocal is used almost exclusively. The press is constantly telling us that some official’s answer was an unequivocal “no.”


            Amend, Emend


amend: to modify or change for the better; alter by adding something to an original resolution or plan. “The teacher suggested that he amend his concluding statement.” Noun is amendment.
emend: to free from faults or defects. Specific reference is to making correction in a literary work. The connotation here is to delete errors and make corrections. Noun is emendation.


            Amoral, Immoral, Unmoral


Amoral - nonmoral, immoral - dissolute, unmoral - having no moral perception; synonymous with nonmoral


            Amount, Number, Quantity


Amount - bulk, the sum total referring to number, number - refers to something counted, quantity - refers to something measured

9

            Anachronous, Incongruous


anachronous: pertaining to that which is out of time with its surroundings; out of place in point of time. A Model T would be anachronous in the jet age. The noun form is anachronism.
incongruous: out of place, unsuitable, incompatible. “The child’s conduct is incongruous with his upbringing.” The noun form is incongruity.


            Anathema, Antipathy, Apathy


anathema: a ban, curse, or damnation, particularly by the church. Anathematization is accompanied by excommunication. Popularly, one can say of any object of intense dislike: “It is anathema to me.” (“It’s a curse to me.”)
antipathy: a feeling of dislike; aversion, repugnance, distaste. “The candidate for public office exhibited antipathy for his opponent’s platform.”
apathy: lack of emotion, feeling, or excitement; indifference, “The voters must have viewed the local election with apathy, since less than 40 per cent went to the polls.”


            Appraise, Apprise, Apprize


Appraise - to value, apprise - to inform, to notify, apprize - to put a value on; seldom used, same as appraise


            Apt, liable, Likely


Apt - suitable, appropriate, skilled, liable - legally bound; implies undesirable consequences, likely - possible


            Ascent, Assent


Ascent - act of rising, assent - consent


            Assay, Essay


Assay - to test and to analyze, as ore; to estimate, essay - to try, to attempt


            Assure, Ensure, Insure


Assure - to set one’s mind at rest, ensure - to make sure from harm, insure - usually means to guarantee life or property against risk


            Attorney, Lawyer


Attorney - strictly applies to one transacting legal business, lawyer - applies to anyone in the profession; also, one legally appointed by another to transact business for him

10

            Avenge, Revenge


To discriminating users of the language avenge refers to a social and revenge to a personal emotion. You can revenge yourself, but you avenge the wrongs of others. Revenge contains the idea of retaliation on a selfish basis; avenge, a just retribution.


            Balance, Remainder


Balance - the difference between the debit and credit side of an account, remainder - the comparatively small part left over


            Basilisk, Basilica


basilisk: “little king”; a fabulous lizard, dragon, or serpent whose hissing drove other reptiles away and whose very look was thought to be fatal.
basilica: “royal portico.” In ancient Rome the basilica was a building used for social and commercial meetings. The title basilica is given to certain Roman Catholic churches and carries with it special liturgical privileges.


            Bathos, Pathos


Pathos is a legitimate praiseworthy emotion.
Bathos, which etymologically means depth, has the meaning of emotionally “jumping off the deep end,” descending from the sublime to the ridiculous. Bathos, therefore, refers to something that is insincere, mawkish, overdone, ridiculous, or anticlimactic. The adjective is bathetic.


            Beside, Besides


beside: alongside
besides: in addition to


            Biannually, Biennially, Bimonthly, Biweekly


biannually: twice a year
biennually: once every two years
bimonthly: once every two months
biweekly: twice a month, once every two weeks (Semiweekly means twice a week)

11

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