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Иностранный язык. Зарубежное регионоведение. Азиатские исследования

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Учебное пособие предназначено для студентов второго курса (4-го семестра) направления «Зарубежное регионоведение». Азиатские исследования». Оно состоит из четырех разделов и включает в себя тексты с заданиями к ним, направленные на совершенствование навыков говорения, реферирования, письма, умений самостоятельно мыслить и давать оценку происходящим событиям; и приложения, включающего в себя шестнадцать текстов на русском языке, предназначенных для перевода и/или реферирования. Разделы I и IV разработаны Лощиловой Н.В. Разделы II и III разработаны Журавлевой И.С.
Журавлева, И. С. Иностранный язык. Зарубежное регионоведение. Азиатские исследования : учебное пособие / И. С. Журавлева, Н. В. Лощилова. - Новосибирск : Изд-во НГТУ, 2020. - 106 с. - ISBN 978-5-7782-4102-2. - Текст : электронный. - URL: https://znanium.com/catalog/product/1869443 (дата обращения: 14.06.2024). – Режим доступа: по подписке.
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Министерство науки и высшего образования Российской Федерации 

НОВОСИБИРСКИЙ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННЫЙ ТЕХНИЧЕСКИЙ УНИВЕРСИТЕТ 
 
 
 
 
 
И.С. ЖУРАВЛЁВА, Н.В. ЛОЩИЛОВА 
 
 
 
 
 
 
ИНОСТРАННЫЙ ЯЗЫК 
 
ЗАРУБЕЖНОЕ  
РЕГИОНОВЕДЕНИЕ 
 
АЗИАТСКИЕ ИССЛЕДОВАНИЯ 
 
 
Утверждено  
Редакционно-издательским советом университета  
в качестве учебного пособия 
 
 
 
 
 
 
НОВОСИБИРСК 
2020 

ББК 81.432.1-923 
  Ж 911 
 
 
 
 
Рецензенты: 
канд. филол. наук, доцент НГПУ Н.В. Носенко 
канд. филол. наук, доцент НГТУ И.А. Казачихина 
 
 
 
 
 
Журавлёва И.С.  
Ж 911 
Иностранный язык. Зарубежное регионоведение. Азиатские 
исследования: учебное пособие / И.С. Журавлёва, Н.В. Лощилова. – 
Новосибирск: Изд-во НГТУ, 2020. – 106 с. 

 
 
ISBN 978-5-7782-4102-2 

Учебное пособие предназначено для студентов второго курса  
(4-го семестра) направления «Зарубежное регионоведение». Азиатские 
исследования». Оно состоит из четырех разделов и включает в себя 
тексты с заданиями к ним, направленные на совершенствование навыков говорения, реферирования, письма, умений самостоятельно  
мыслить и давать оценку происходящим событиям; и приложения, 
включающего в себя шестнадцать текстов на русском языке, предназначенных для перевода и/или реферирования. 
Разделы I и IV разработаны Лощиловой Н.В. 
Разделы II и III разработаны Журавлевой И.С. 
 
 
 
 

БК 81.432.1-923 

 
ISBN 978-5-7782-4102-2 
 Журавлёва И.С., Лощилова Н.В., 2020 
 
 Новосибирский государственный 
 
    технический университет, 2020 

CONTENT 
 
Unit I. College Life ................................................................................................... 5 
Reading 1. College Life. NSTU ..................................................................... 5 
Reading 2. System of Higher Education in Russia ......................................... 7 
Reading 3. Bologna Process ......................................................................... 14 
Reading 4. Education in Great Britain and the USA .................................... 18 

Unit II. Ecology ...................................................................................................... 27 
Reading 1. Air Pollution ............................................................................... 27 
Reading 2. Global Warming ......................................................................... 30 
Reading 3. Destruction of the Ozone Layer.................................................. 33 
Reading 4. Water Contamination ................................................................. 36 
Reading 5. Quality of Tap Water in Russia .................................................. 39 
Reading 6. Nuclear Power and Alternative Fuels ......................................... 41 
Reading 7. Ravaging of Biodiversity ............................................................ 45 
Reading 8. Solutions to Some Ecological Problems ..................................... 47 

Unit III. Crime and Punishment. Terrorism ....................................................... 52 
Reading 1. What Type of Conduct Amounts to a Crime .............................. 52 
Reading 2. Law. Order. Crime ...................................................................... 54 
Reading 3. Types of Legal Professions ........................................................ 56 
Reading 4. Why Do People Commit Crimes? .............................................. 58 
Reading 5. Death Penalty in the USA ........................................................... 61 
Reading 6. “Super-Terrorism” ...................................................................... 63 

Unit IV. Modern Technologies .............................................................................. 69 
Reading 1. Modern Technologies: Their Advantages and Disadvantages ......... 69 
Reading 2. Science and Technological Progress in Modern Society ............ 74 
Reading 3. Several Greatest Discoveries and Inventions of the  
XXI Century ................................................................................................. 84 

Appendix ................................................................................................................. 93 

 

Данное учебное пособие предназначено для студентов второго курса (4-го семестра) направления «Зарубежное регионоведение. Азиатские исследования». Основная задача пособия – ввести тематическую 
лексику по темам, отработать и закрепить материал при помощи коммуникативных заданий.  
Каждый раздел пособия состоит из введения в тему (Warming-up) и 
нескольких частей (Readings), которые включают в себя тексты с необходимой информацией по теме и разнообразные по методической 
направленности лексико-грамматические упражнения и задания, 
направленные на формирование и закрепление речевых навыков, необходимых для общения по теме и эффективного овладения языком, а 
также навыков перевода с английского языка на русский и наоборот.  
Текстовый материал взят из различных источников, методический 
материал разработан составителями. 
Цель данного пособия – овладение, развитие и совершенствование 
профессиональных навыков и умений студентов. 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 

UNIT I 

COLLEGE LIFE 

Reading 1 

Warming-up 
1. Could you tell us how you imagined your student’s life? 
2. Do you know how many faculties there are at our university? 
3. Why have you choosen the specialty you study in? 
4. Do your friends study at NSTU as well? If so, what faculties? 
5. Is it difficult for you to study at the university or not? 
6. How much time does it take you to prepare for classes? 
7. What subject(s) do you consider as a) the most difficult; b) the most 
interesting; c) the most necessary for your future profession? Why? 
8. What subject(s) do you consider to be uninteresting to you? 
9. What subjects are you fond of most of all? 
10. Do you live in the hostel or anywhere else? 

College Life (Introductory Text). NSTU 

The merry-go-round of college life is something that one never forgets. 
It is a fascinating, fabulous experience, independent of the fact whether one 
is a full-time or a part-time student. Nobody can forget the first day at the 
university when they turn from an applicant into a first-year student after 
passing the entrance exams. 
The academic staff of any university is composed of a rector, vicerectors, deans, subdeans, heads of departments, senior lecturers and lecturers. Some of them are professors, some – associate or assistant professors. 
The curriculum includes lectures, seminars and tutorials. Home preparations – a real avalanche of homework. Tests, written reproductions, compositions, papers, synopses, examination sessions, finals – successes and failures, tears and smiles … 
If a student does not cope with the workload, he starts lagging behind, 
so it is easier to keep pace with the programme than to catch up with it later. 
Junior students become senior, but all of them are one family – undergraduates. Some of them can be expelled from the university, some – graduate with honours. 

The history of Novosibirsk State Technical University (formerly Novosibirsk Electrotechnical Institute, NETI) dates back to 1950, but the studies 
started in September 1953. There were only 150 students at two faculties – 
Radio Engineering and Electromechanics. The biggest technical higher institution in Novosibirsk was established under the guidance of G.P. Lyshchinsky, who was rector of the university from 1955 to 1990. In 1992, NETI 
was renamed as NSTU. Nowadays our university is one of the biggest higher educational establishments in the region with more than 13,500 students 
trained in 84 specialities and 1,500 lecturers. 
In the early 1990s, the university was among the first higher institutions 
to introduce a multi-level system of education. The advantages of such a 
system are apparent. It makes the process of education more flexible and 
gives the students the opportunity to set and achieve their goals at different 
levels. Moreover, the system facilitates the integration of higher educational 
establishments into the world system of education. A student who wants to 
receive a Bachelor’s degree in the field chosen studies 4 years and after 
completing the course he is awarded a Bachelor’s degree in the corresponding field. Bachelor’s degree holders have a choice either to start practical 
work or take the Master’s degree programme lasting for two years. It is 
composed of a specified number of required and elective courses and is 
completely different from the Bachelor’s degree. During two years of studies, master students attend lectures in their profile, choose an advisor and 
prepare their master thesis, which is defended before the certifying commission. Master’s graduates are supposed to possess advanced knowledge of 
theoretical and applied topics, skills in analysis, critical evaluation and ability to solve complex problems. 
Since 2005 the university has been a participant of the Bologna process 
and a year later the graduates began to get a supplement of the European 
standard to their diplomas. 
The academic staff of NSTU is involved in fundamental and applied research and programmes, publishes scientific articles in foreign and Russian 
proceedings, develops and issues textbooks and training manuals. 
A lot of international, all-Russian and regional conferences are held at 
our university. 

Exercise 1. Answer the questions: 
1. Do you imagine the university life as a fascinating, interesting experience, full of unexpected moments? 

2. Would you like to take the Master’s degree programme? If not, give 
your grounds. 
3. Do you consider our university to be a good choice for acquiring 
knowledge and specialization in different fields? 

Exercise 2. Match the words and expressions with their definitions: 
applicant; composition; curriculum; expel; synopsis; keep pace with; lag 
behind; part-time student; undergraduates 
_____________________________________________________________ 

a person working or studying during only a part of the regular working 
time; not lag behind; a short account of something longer; develop 
more slowly that others; a course of study offered in a school, college, 
university; a person making a request for a job, for entrance to a school 
or university; students doing a university course for a first degree; a 
short piece of writing; dismiss officially from a school, etc. 

Exercise 3. Give Russian equivalents to the following: 
dismiss from the university; lag behind the group; part-time students; follow 
the curriculum; associate professor; degree holders; issue textbooks and 
training manuals; foreign as well as Russian proceedings; date back to 

Exercise 4. Translate the following word collocations: 
зачётка; профессорско-преподавательский состав; студенты очного 
отделения; учебный план; приложение к диплому европейского образца; участник Болонского процесса; присвоить степень магистра 

Reading 2 

Warming-up 
1. What do you know about the system of higher education in Russia? 
2. Do you consider it to be one of the best systems? 
3. What interesting situations did you face during your studies at the 
university? 

System of Higher Education in Russia 

Higher education in Russia is provided by state and private higher educational institutions. It is under the jurisdiction of the federal Ministry of 
Education and Science, which is responsible for the accreditation and  

licensing of higher educational establishments as well as for developing and 
maintaining State Educational Standards. Only accredited higher educational establishments have the right to issue state diplomas and degrees ensuring 
full vocational and academic rights, and are covered by international agreements on mutual recognition and validation of educational documents. Only 
accredited higher institutions have the right to use the seal with the national 
emblem of the Russian Federation. 
Unlike the USA and the Bologna process model, there was no division 
into undergraduate (BSc/BA) and graduate (MSc/MA) levels. Tertiary education always fitted into in a single stage resulting in specialist diploma and 
took five to six years to complete. Specialist diplomas of high-ranking institutions were considered to be equal to western MSc/MA qualification.  
A specialist graduate needed no further academic qualification to pursue a 
real-world career, except for some branches of medical professions that required a post-graduate residency stage. Study programmes were (and are 
still) fixed for the whole term of study. 
Since 2009 there have been three levels of higher education in the country: 1) a four-year programme leading to the Bachelor’s degree, the first  
final university degree; 2) postgraduate studies with the duration of two 
years leading to the Master’s degree; 3) a scientific degree of the Candidate 
of Sciences (equivalent to PhD).The first two were introduced after Russia’s 
joining the Bologna Declaration in 2003. 
Nowadays Russia is in the process of migrating from its traditional tertiary education model, incompatible with existing western academic degrees, to a modernized degree structure in line with the Bologna process 
model. In late 2007, Russia enacted a law that replaced the traditional 5-year 
specialist education model with a new approach: a four-year bachelor’s degree followed by a two-year master’s degree. 
The labour market is unware of the change and critics predict that standalone BSc/BA diplomas will not be recognized as “real” university education in the foreseeable future, rendering the degree unnecessary and undesirable without further specialization. 
Our country discerns the following types of higher educational establishments: 
– University is a higher institution with activities aimed at developing 
education, science and culture by performing fundamental scientific research and training at all the levels of higher, post-higher and further educa
tion within a wide range of natural sciences, humanities and other directions 
of science, technology and culture. 
– Academy is a higher institution aimed at developing education, science and culture by performing fundamental scientific research and training 
at all the levels of higher, post-higher and further education, mainly in one 
specific area of science, technology and culture. 
– Institute is an independent higher institution or a part (a structural 
unit) of the university and academy that applies vocational educational curricula in specific areas of science, technology and culture and is involved in 
scientific research. 

Exercise 1. Give answers to the following questions: 
1. Do you consider a multi-level system of education makes learning 
more flexible? 
2. Do you consider such an educational system gives the universities the 
possibility to integrate into a global system of education? 
3. Do you consider such a system gives the students the opportunity to 
achieve their goals at different levels? 

Exercise 2. Say in Russian: 
issue state diplomas; validation of educational documents; tertiary education; pursue a career; incompatible with western degrees; in line with such a 
model; discern the following types; enact a law; apply a vocational education curriculum; PhD; postgraduate students 

Exercise 3. Suggest English equivalents: 
вуз; ответственный за лицензирование; взаимное признание; и степень 
бакалавра, и степень магистра; присоединиться к Болонскому процессу; в конце 2007 года; в начале 2008 года; заменить традиционную модель; рынок труда; не признавать, как высшее образование; нацеленные как на развитие образования, так и на развитие науки; в 
обозримом будущем 

Exercise 4. Agree or disagree on the following: 
1. Higher education in the country is subordinated to the Ministry of 
Education and Science. 
2. Since 2000, there have been only two levels of education. 
3. Only accredited higher institutions possess the right to issue state diplomas. 

4. As in the United States, there was a division into undergraduate and 
graduate levels in our country. 
5. Higher education in our country cannot be provided by private higher 
educational establishments. 

Exercise 5. Fill in the blanks with the appropriate word: 

1. A four-year programme leads to… . 
a) the Master’s degree b) the Bachelor’s degree c) PhD 
2. The Ministry of Education and Science is responsible… . 
a) only licensing the higher institutions 
b) the accreditation and licensing the higher educational establishments 
c) only maintaining state educational standards 
d) not only for the accreditation and licensing the higher institutions but  
also for developing and maintaining educational standards 
3. In Russia the Bachelor’s and Master’s degrees were introduced 
after… . 
a) signing the Bologna Declaration 
b) introducing the Bologna Declaration  
c) providing the Bologna Declaration 
d) joining the Bologna Declaration. 
4. In 2007 our country replaced the 5-year education model with… . 
a) a four-year Bachelor’s degree         b) a two-year Master’s degree 
c) a 4-year Bachelor’s and a 2-year Master’s degrees 
d) a Bachelor’s and Master’s degrees and a scientific degree (equivalent 
to PhD) 
5. Critics say that bachelor’s diplomas will not be recognized as … in 
future… . 
a) a “real” education  
c) undesirable without further specialization 
b) unnecessary  
d) unreasonable 

Exercise 6. Memorize the following linking words and use them in 
sentences of your own: 

Linking Words 

Adding more points on the topic: 

moreover = besides = in addition = furthermore; not only … but also; what 
is more; apart from this; not to mention the fact that 

Listing points: 

first(ly) = at first = first of all = to begin with = to start with; second(ly); 
next = further = then; finally = at last = in the end = later on 

Concluding: 

thus; hence = therefore = consequently = as a consequence; as a result; in 
short = in brief; in a few words; in a word; to sum up = in summary; on the 
whole; taking the above said (mentioned) into consideration (account); in 
conclusion; as it was previously stated 

Making contrasting points: 

however = still = yet; nevertheless = nonetheless; on the contrary; otherwise; on the one (other) hand; in can be argued that = one can argue that; in 
(by) contrast 

Expressing reality: 

of course; in fact = as a matter of fact = in effect; the fact of the matter is 
that; it’s certain that; by no means; there is no doubt; needless to say 

Expressing probability: 

perhaps; probably; it’s obvious (apparent, evident) that 

Evaluating the statement: 

(un)fortunately; strange enough; it seems to me that; it’s not surprising that; 
it’s (un)likely that 

Expressing limitation: 

in a sense; more or less; to some (a certain) extent; in particular; to say  
nothing of 

Rephrasing: 

in other words; in plain words; to be more exact (precise, accurate); put it in 
another way; so to say = so to speak 

Expressing widespread ideas or thoughts: 

it’s well known that = it’s common knowledge that; it’s popularly believed 
that