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Английский язык для специальных целей: Electronics. Information Technologies

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Настоящее учебное пособие предназначено для студентов II курса технических специальностей, изучающих английский язык, обучающихся по направлениям «Электроника и наноэлектроника», «Информатика и вычислительная техника», «Информационная безопасность». Цель пособия - развитие навыков работы с текстом по специальности на английском языке. Учебное пособие включает разделы, содержащие тексты по направлениям: «Электроника», «Информационные технологии», обширный лексико-грамматический материал, упражнения, направленные на развитие навыков и умений работы с профессионально ориентированными текстами. В зависимости от целей, поставленных преподавателем, данное пособие может быть использовано для контактной и самостоятельной работы обучающихся.
Гордеева, М. Н. Английский язык для специальных целей: Electronics. Information Technologies : учебное пособие / М. Н. Гордеева, Е. В. Гужева. - Новосибирск : Изд-во НГТУ, 2018. - 76 с. - ISBN 978-5-7782-3668-4. - Текст : электронный. - URL: https://znanium.com/catalog/product/1866034 (дата обращения: 15.07.2024). – Режим доступа: по подписке.
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Министерство образования и науки Российской Федерации 

НОВОСИБИРСКИЙ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННЫЙ ТЕХНИЧЕСКИЙ УНИВЕРСИТЕТ 

 
 
 
 
 
 
М.Н. ГОРДЕЕВА, Е.В. ГУЖЕВА 
 
 
 
АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК 
ДЛЯ СПЕЦИАЛЬНЫХ ЦЕЛЕЙ 
 
 
ELECTRONICS. INFORMATION 
TECHNOLOGIES 
 
 
Утверждено  
Редакционно-издательским советом университета 
 в качестве учебного пособия 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
НОВОСИБИРСК 
2018 

ББК 81.432.1-923 
  Г 681 
 
Рецензенты: 
канд. филол. наук, доц. Е.М. Кацман 
канд. филол. наук, доц. С.С. Жданов 
 
Гордеева М.Н. 
Г 681  
Английский язык для специальных целей: Electronics. Information 
Technologies: учебное пособие / М.Н. Гордеева, Е.В. Гужева. – Новосибирск: Изд-во НГТУ, 2018. – 76 с.  

ISBN 978-5-7782-3668-4 

Настоящее учебное пособие предназначено для студентов II курса 
технических специальностей, изучающих английский язык, обучающихся по 
направлениям «Электроника и наноэлектроника», «Информатика и вычислительная техника», «Информационная безопасность». 

Цель пособия – развитие навыков работы с текстом по специальности на 

английском языке. Учебное пособие включает разделы, содержащие тексты по 
направлениям: «Электроника», «Информационные технологии», обширный 
лексико-грамматический материал, упражнения, направленные на развитие 
навыков и умений работы с профессионально ориентированными текстами. 
В зависимости от целей, поставленных преподавателем, данное пособие 
может быть использовано для контактной и самостоятельной работы обучающихся. 

ББК 81.432.1-923 
Гордеева Мария Николаевна 
Гужева Елена Владимировна 
 
АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК 
ДЛЯ СПЕЦИАЛЬНЫХ ЦЕЛЕЙ 
 
ELECTRONICS. INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES 
 
Учебное пособие 
 
В авторской редакции 
 
Выпускающий редактор И.П. Брованова 
Дизайн обложки А.В. Ладыжская 
Компьютерная верстка Н.В. Гаврилова 
 
Налоговая льгота – Общероссийский классификатор продукции 
Издание соответствует коду 95 3000 ОК 005-93 (ОКП) 
 
Подписано в печать 28.09.2018. Формат 60 × 84 1/16. Бумага офсетная 

Тираж 50 экз. Уч.-изд. л. 4,41. Печ. л. 4,75. Изд. 228. Заказ № 1305 
Цена договорная 

 
Отпечатано в типографии 
Новосибирского государственного технического университета 
630073, г. Новосибирск, пр. К. Маркса, 20 
 
ISBN 978-5-7782-3668-4 
© Гордеева М.Н., Гужева Е.В., 2018 
  
© Новосибирский государственный 
    технический университет, 2018 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
CONTENTS 
 

MODULE I. ELECTRONICS ................................................................................... 4 

Unit 1. Direct current generator ........................................................................... 4 
Unit 2. Semiconductor devices ........................................................................... 11 
Unit 3. Saving space of electronic system .......................................................... 19 
Unit 4. Batteries ................................................................................................. 27 

MODULE II. INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES ................................................ 35 

Unit 5. What is a computer network? ................................................................. 35 
Unit 6. Development of computer networks ...................................................... 43 
Unit 7. High-level languages .............................................................................. 50 
Unit 8. Cryptography ......................................................................................... 54 
Unit 9. Hacking .................................................................................................. 60 
Unit 10. Computer viruses ................................................................................. 70 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

MODULE I. ELECTRONICS 

UNIT 1. DIRECT CURRENT GENERATOR 

Vocabulary  

1. to aid in [eɪd in] – способствовать 
2. alternating current [ˈɔːltəneɪtɪŋ ˈkʌrənt] – переменный ток  
3. armature terminal [ˈɑːmətjʊə ˈtɜːmɪnl] – клемма обмотки якоря 
4. cast steel [kɑːst stiːl] – литая сталь 
5. commutator [ˈkɔmjuːteɪtə] – переключатель 
6. to convert [ˈkɔnvɜːt] – превращать, трансформировать 
7. direct current [dɪˈrekt ˈkʌrənt] – постоянный ток 
8. eddy-current [ˈedɪ ˈkʌrənt] – вихревые токи 
9. electron [ɪˈlektrɔn] – электрон 

10. electrical circuit [ɪˈlektrɪkəl ˈsɜːkɪt] – электрическая схема 
11. electrical energy [ɪˈlektrɪkəl ˈenəʤɪ] – электроэнергия 
12. electromotive force [ɪˈlektrəʊməʊtɪv fɔːs] – электродвижущая сила 
13. field winding [fiːld ˈwɪndɪŋ] – обмотка подмагничивания (воз
буждения) 

14. ion [ˈaɪən] – ион 
15. load resistors [ləʊd rɪˈzɪstə] – нагрузочные резисторы 
16. magnetic field [mægˈnetɪk fiːld] – магнитное поле 
17. magnetic flux [mægˈnetɪk flʌks] – магнитный поток 
18.  mount on smth [maʊnt ɔn] – укреплять на чем-либо 
19. neutron [ˈnjuːtrɔn] – нейтрон 
20.  output voltage [ˈaʊtpʊt ˈvəʊltɪʤ] – выходное напряжение 
21. power input [ˈpaʊə ˈɪnpʊt] – потребляемая мощность 
22. proton [ˈprəʊtɔn] – протон 
23. salient pole [ˈseɪljənt pəʊl] – явно выраженный полюс 
24. shaft [ʃɑːft] – вал 

25. the former… the latter [ˈfɔːmə…ˈlætə] – первый… последний 
26. to bolt [bəʊlt] – закреплять 
27. to come into being – появляться 
28. wattage [ˈwɒtɪʤ]  мощность в ваттах 
29. yoke [jəʊk] – ярмо 

1.1. Answer the questions:  
1) Which household items use electric motors? List as many items as 
you can.  

2) What is an electric generator?  

1.2. Match the words to make combinations:  

1) prime 
a) flux  

2) alternating 
b) source 
3) battery 
c) film 
4) electromotive 
d) iron 
5) output 
e) current 
6) magnetic 
f) voltage 
7) insulating 
g) converter 
8) cast 
h) mover 
9) energy 
i) energy 

10) electrical 
j) force 

1.3. Fill the gaps with word combinations from 1.2.  

1) There are two kinds of generator. The first produces direct current, 

the second type deals with _______.  

2) ________ is the voltage developed by a source of electrical energy, 

e.g. battery. 

3) ______ conducts electric current; therefore it is possible to have stray 

currents in a system of pipes from this material.  

4) _______ is the result of the interaction of subatomic particles with 

electromotive force.  

5) A special system called Wave ______________ is a technology that 

used the motion of ocean waves to create electricity. 

6) This polymer is used as a material for making ___________. 
7) A car ________ is a voltage source that has no current limiting. Try 

overloading it and see what happens.  

8) A change in the ________ passing through a loop of conductive 

wire will cause an electromotive force, and therefore an electric current in 
the loop. 

9) Using this controller we can programme _______ from 0.75V to 

3.3V. 

10) In the energy industry, ______ drive pumping units, compressors, 

chillers, and other forms of related equipment. 

1.4. Read the text.   

Direct Current Generator 

Historically, direct current machines came into being before alternating 

current machines because the scientists of that time (about the middle of the 
19th century) were only familiar with battery sources and consequently 
made motors which operated from batteries, as well as generators to charge 
the batteries. 1) ____________, and will not in the foreseeable future, since 
the DC motor offers a controllability not yet approached by AC motors. 
Nevertheless a thorough study of DC generators is necessary 
2) ____________. 

3) ___________. Mechanical power input received from a prime mover 

(DC motor in this case) is converted electromagnetically into electrical 
energy. This electrical energy can be changed into heat as is done by 
connecting load resistors across its armature terminals. The field winding of 
the generator is excited with direct current. It is based on the principle of 
production of dynamically or motionally induced emf (Electromotive 
Force). 4) __________, dynamically induced emf is produced in it 
according to Faraday's Laws of Electromagnetic Induction. This emf causes 
a current to flow if the conductor circuit is closed.  

The field of the machine produces the magnetic flux. It is basically a 

stationary electromagnet composed of a set of salient poles bolted to the 
inside of a circular frame. Field coils, mounted on the poles, carry the  
D.C. exciting current. The frame is usually made of solid cast steel, 
5) ________. In some generators the flux is created by permanent magnets. 
The armature is the rotating part of a DC generator. 6) ________. The core 
is composed of iron laminations that are forming a solid cylindrical core. 
The laminations are individually coated with an insulating film so that they 
do not come in electrical contact with each other. 7) _______. 

1.5. Fill the gaps in the text “Direct Current Generator” with 

phrases given below. There are 3 odd sentences! 

a) It consists of a commutator, an iron core, and a set of coils; 
b) They support the field coil; 
c) Whenever a conductor cuts magnetic flux; 
d) A D.C. generator is an energy converter; 
e) it is made of cast steel; 
f) As a result, eddy-current losses are reduced; 
g) Although superior in many ways, AC machines have not completely 
replaced DC machines; 

h) Current flows and the poles are electromagnetised and produce the 

necessary flux; 
i) because the construction of motors and generators is the same; 
j) whereas the pose pieces are composed of stacked iron laminations. 

1.6. Match the essential parts of DC generator with their 

descriptions or functions.  

Describe the functions using the combination “the function of … is …” 
 
1. Magnetic frame  
a) It provides a path of very low reluctance to the 
flux through the armature from one pole to another 
one. 

2. Pole cores and pole shoes
b) They are used to reduce losses of friction and 
other mechanical losses.

3. Pole coil or field coils
c) This part rotates inside of an armature.

4. Armature core 
 
d) It is a very useful part of DC generator. Its main 
work is to take input AC and give output DC. 

5. Armature winding
 
e) They spread out the flux in the air gap and also 
reduce the reluctance in magnetic path.

6. Commutator 
 
f) It provides mechanical support for the poles as 
well as mechanical strength for generator machine.  
It also carries the magnetic flux produced by poles.  

7. Brushes  
g) It takes supply from commutator and gives output 
to terminal of generator.

8. Bearings 
h) It is a static part of a generator. 

9. Stator 
i) It carries current and generates electromotive 
force.

10. Shaft  
j) These coils electromagnetise poles which produce 
the necessary flux.  

1.7. Choose the correct word to complete the sentences. Change the 

form if is necessary. There is 1 odd word! 

Conduct; current; magnetic; wires; equation; provide; result from; 

generate; conductor; exert; force.  

 

1. Electricity is usually carried through buildings by _______.  
2. ________ is something through which electricity can pass. 
3. J. Maxwell produced _______ proving the electric and magnetic 

field to act as one. 

4. To ______ power you need a way to control electricity. 
5. An electrical __________ supplies power in houses.  
6. The electromagnetic field ________ a force on the particles. 
7. A magnetic field _______ the motion of the electric current. 
8. _______ compasses on the ships were affected by lightning. 
9. No battery can _____ enough electrical power to operate a machine. 

10.  Physicists all around the world ______experiments with electricity 

and magnets.  

1.8. Answer the question: which materials can be used for parts of a 

generator? Match the DC generator parts and the materials given 
below.  

DC generator parts: magnetic frame, armature core, brushes, stator, 

commutator, armature winding. 

Materials: copper, cast steel, iron / steel, cast iron / steel, carbon / 

graphite. 

1.9. Translate into English. 
1) Постоянный ток – это ток, который течет в одном направлении. 
2) Электроника – это наука, изучающая взаимодействие электронов 

и других заряженных частиц с электрическими, магнитными и 
электромагнитными полями. 

3) Электрический ток – это движение заряженных частиц по 

проводнику в определенном направлении. 

4) Для того чтобы выяснить, как получают переменный ток, 

рассмотрим устройство генератора переменного тока. 

5) Электромеханическое действие магнитного поля заключается в 

том, что находящийся в поле проводник подвергается действию силы 
этого поля. 

6) На силовом действии магнитного поля основана работа 

электрических двигателей, реле и пр.  

7) Вещества, у которых внутреннее (inner) магнитное поле в 

несколько сотен раз превышает внешнее (outer) магнитное поле, 
называют ферромагнетиками. 

8) Действие индукционных аппаратов основано на взаимодейст
вии тока и магнитного поля. 

9) Электродвигатель состоит из ротора и статора, между 

которыми находится воздушное пространство. 

10) В обмотку якоря, подключенного к источнику переменного 

тока, подается постоянный ток от внешнего источника. 

1.10. Study the Gerund forms and complete the exercises below. 

 
Indefinite
Perfect

Active 
connecting
 
He denied connecting these devices. 

having connected

 
He admitted having 
connected these devices. 

Passive 
being connected

 
Denying being connected with this case 
of fraud he agreed to meet the police. 

having been connected

 
After having been connected 
these wires provide current 
properly now.

 
State the form of the Gerund. Translate the sentences. 
 
1. This experiment does not require doing the same things all the time. 
2. I thought that I am capable of conducting the research on my own, 

but my scientific advisor insisted on helping me. 

3. Writing scientific papers is a must for every scientist. 
4.   It is no use searching for another approach. 
5. He insisted on taking part in the scientific conference.  
6. The author reports having applied a new method.      
7. Avoid mixing these two substances, it could be dangerous. 
8. Talking about the generator working principle, there is one 

more point worth mentioning. 

9. Low electric conductivity of this new material resulted in its being 

used in cables.  

10. Toolmakers usually say that they like working with hands and 

making dies. 

11. Hardness is the ability to withstand being stretched or bent. 
12. It’s no use being an engineer if you don’t want to improve people’s 

life. 

1.11. Create seven sentences using different forms of the Gerund.  

1.12. Match the parts of the sentences in A and B columns. 
 
A
B

1) Production engineers are responsible 
for 
a) having no electrical contact with each 
other. 

2) Having set the theme of research, 
think about 
b) setting clear objectives.  

3) Working in a team, you should not 
aim at 
c) getting electric shock. 

4) The iron sheets are coated with an 
insulating film; it results in
d) making production process efficient 
and also choosing safe materials.

5) Satisfying results of the work depend 
on 

e)  accelerating reactions. 

6) Do not touch the wire to prevent 
yourself from 
f) employing such methods. 

7) Catalysts aid in  
g) being knocked down.

8) He was capable of
h) conducting some experiments.

9) He did not insist on 
i) an armature himself.    

10) Beware the truck! Avoid
j) doing everything yourself.

 

1.13. Open the brackets using the correct form of the Gerund. 
1) He admitted (make) a mistake in his previous calculations. 
2) We do not mind (undertake) this research together with you. 
3) (Study) of DC generators is a necessary thing. 
4) J. Maxwell’s new equations meant (rewrite) of existing theories on 

the motion of objects.   

5) He succeeded in (obtain) reliable results. 
6) By (generate) and (control) electromagnetic fields we have electricity 
everywhere. 
7) They prided themselves (be) the first to invent this mechanism. 

8) Electrical energy can be changed into heat by (connect) resistors 
across armature terminals. 
9) She avoided (do) wrong constructing the electro scheme.  

10) It’s no use (take) these batteries, they need to be recharged.  
11) I think of (try) another approach. 
12) The behaviour of current was verified by (analyze) experimental 

curves.  

1.14. Write down nine sentences with the Gerund of the verbs 

below. 

Verbs: to do, to praise, to turn on, to rotate, to complete, to feed, to 

move, to put, to induce. 

1.15. Make a report about generator protection from different 

faults. Think about: 

1) Types of faults.  
2) Types of protection. 
3) Tools or techniques needed to protect. 
 
 

UNIT 2. SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES 

Vocabulary  

1. active region [ˈæktɪv ˈriːʤən] – активная область 
2. carrier [ˈkærɪə] – носитель 
3. cladding layer [ˈklædɪŋ ˈleɪə] – плакирующий слой 
4. coherent [kəʊˈhɪərənt] – когерентный 
5. compatible [kəmˈpætəbl] – совместимый 
6. emission [ɪˈmɪʃn] – излучение 
7. induced [ɪnˈdjuːst] – индуцированный 
8. infrared [ɪnˈfrəˈred] – инфракрасный 
9. junction [ʤʌŋkʃn] – соединение 

10. laser diode [ˈleɪzə ˈdaɪəʊd] – лазерный диод 
11. lattice constant [ˈlætɪs ˈkɔnstənt] – постоянная (параметр) решетки 
12. light-emitting diode [laɪt ɪˈmɪtɪŋ ˈdaɪəd] – светодиод 
13. optoelectronics [ɒptəʊɪˈlektrɒnɪks] – оптоэлектроника 
14. photoconduction [ˈfəʊtə kənˈdʌkʃn] – фотопроводимость