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Nanoengineering

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Артикул: 777806.01.99
Учебное пособие предназначено для студентов 2 и 3 курса бакалавриата технических направлений для использования на занятиях в рамках дисциплин «Иностранный язык: Технический перевод иностранной литературы по профилю подготовки» и «Иностранный язык». Целью пособия является формирование у студентов бакалавриата способности к коммуникации в устной и письменной формах на русском и иностранном языках для решения задач профессионального взаимодействия, умения владеть техникой перевода текстов, электронными словарями и текстовыми редакторами, знания иностранного языка для межличностного общения с иностранными партнерами, знания особенностей делового общения на русском и иностранном языках, умения анализировать речь оппонента на русском и иностранном языке, умения выстраивать межкультурную, деловую, профессиональную коммуникацию с учетом психологических, поведенческих, социальных характеристик партнеров на русском и иностранном языках, владения навыками публичного выступления, устной презентации результатов профессиональной деятельности на русском и иностранном языке, умения логически верно, аргументировано и ясно строить устную и письменную речь в сфере профессиональной деятельности на русском и иностранном языке. Пособие включает 2 раздела: «Нанотехнологии» и «Наноинженерия». Каждый раздел содержит задания и упражнения на обучение следующим видам речевой деятельности: чтению, говорению, письму и восприятию речи на слух. В пособие включены аутентичные материалы.
Золотилина, А. С. Nanoengineering : учебное пособие / А. С. Золотилина, Н. П. Медведева, С. В. Никрошкина. - Новосибирск : Изд-во НГТУ, 2020. - 76 с. - ISBN 978-5-7782-4138-1. - Текст : электронный. - URL: https://znanium.com/catalog/product/1866025 (дата обращения: 19.07.2024). – Режим доступа: по подписке.
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Министерство науки и высшего образования Российской Федерации 

НОВОСИБИРСКИЙ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННЫЙ ТЕХНИЧЕСКИЙ УНИВЕРСИТЕТ 

 
 
 
 
 А.С. ЗОЛОТИЛИНА, Н.П. МЕДВЕДЕВА,  
С.В. НИКРОШКИНА 

 

 

NANOENGINEERING  

НАНОИНЖЕНЕРИЯ 

 

Утверждено 
Редакционно-издательским советом университета 
в качестве учебного пособия 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
НОВОСИБИРСК 
2020 

 

ББК 81.432.1-7-923 
  З-806 
 
 
Рецензенты: 
канд. физ.-мат. наук И.И. Бетеров 
канд. пед. наук, доц. В.Н. Афонасова 
 
 
Золотилина А.С.  
З-806  
Nanoengineering: учебное пособие / А.С. Золотилина, Н.П. Медведева, С.В. Никрошкина. – Новосибирск: Изд-во НГТУ, 2020. – 
76 с. 

ISBN 978-5-7782-4138-1 

Учебное пособие предназначено для студентов 2 и 3 курса бакалавриата технических направлений для использования на занятиях в рамках дисциплин 
«Иностранный язык: Технический перевод иностранной литературы по профилю подготовки» и «Иностранный язык». 
Целью пособия является формирование у студентов бакалавриата способности к коммуникации в устной и письменной формах на русском и иностранном 
языках для решения задач профессионального взаимодействия, умения владеть 
техникой перевода текстов, электронными словарями и текстовыми редакторами, знания иностранного языка для межличностного общения с иностранными 
партнерами, знания особенностей делового общения на русском и иностранном 
языках, умения анализировать речь оппонента на русском и иностранном языке, 
умения выстраивать межкультурную, деловую, профессиональную коммуникацию с учетом психологических, поведенческих, социальных характеристик 
партнеров на русском и иностранном языках, владения навыками публичного 
выступления, устной презентации результатов профессиональной деятельности 
на русском и иностранном языке, умения логически верно, аргументировано и 
ясно строить устную и письменную речь в сфере профессиональной деятельности на русском и иностранном языке. 
Пособие включает 2 раздела: «Нанотехнологии» и «Наноинженерия». Каждый раздел содержит задания и упражнения на обучение следующим видам речевой деятельности: чтению, говорению, письму и восприятию речи на слух. В 
пособие включены аутентичные материалы. 
 
ББК 81.432.1-7-923 

ISBN 978-5-7782-4138-1 
© Золотилина А.С., Медведева Н.П.,  
 
    Никрошкина С.В., 2020 
 
© Новосибирский государственный  
 
    технический университет, 2020 

CONTENTS 
 

Module I. Nanoscience. Nanotechnology and Nanoengineering .......................... 4 

Unit 1. Insight into the Science of Nanotechnology ............................................. 4 
Unit 2. Nanoengineering .................................................................................... 10 

Module II. Nanoengineering Applications ........................................................... 14 

Unit 1. Value of Applications............................................................................. 14 
Unit 2. Carbon Nanotubes and their Classification ............................................ 18 
Unit 3. Nanoengineering in Fuel Cells ............................................................... 23 
Unit 4. Nanomechanics ...................................................................................... 28 
Unit 5. Nanomaterials ........................................................................................ 34 
Unit 6. Size Effects ............................................................................................ 37 
Unit 7. Nanodevices ........................................................................................... 39 
Unit 8. Nanotechnology in Food ........................................................................ 43 

Supplementary Texts ............................................................................................. 48 

References ............................................................................................................... 75 
 

MODULE I 
NANOSCIENCE.  
NANOTECHNOLOGY AND NANOENGINEERING 

 Focus: Introduction to Nanotechnology 
 Grammar Focus: The Infinitive 
 Skills Focus: Reading about the history of nanotechnology and 
its evolution; learning general vocabulary and terminology; developing 
speaking and writing skills 

UNIT 1. INSIGHT INTO THE SCIENCE  
OF NANOTECHNOLOGY 

Before you read 

1. Master the active vocabulary: 
dimension – измерение, величина, объем 
diverse – иной, отличный, разнообразный, разный 
extension — распространение, предоставление 
conventional – обусловленный, стандартный, условный 
toapproach – приближаться, подходить 
assembly – общество, сбор 
assume –присваивать   
toassemble – подбирать, собирать, монтировать 
entities – сущность 
to evolve – развивать, раскрывать 

2. Many words have been used to describe nanotechnology. Name 
four of the terms below that you think give the best description of nanotechnology. 
study, engineering, system, nanoscale, molecule, dimension, components, atomic and molecular scale, investigate, implications, nanoobjects, 
nanophotonics, entities, impact of nanomaterials, toxicity  

3. Discuss the following questions in pairs or small groups. 
1. What is nanotechnology? 
2. What does nanotechnology deal with? 
3. Which properties do materials hundreds of nanometers in size exhibit? 
4. What are the applications of nanotechnology? 

4. Read the text and say what new facts you have found. 

Overview of Nanotechnology 

Nanoscience is the study of phenomena and manipulation of materials at 
atomic, molecular and macromolecular scales, where properties differ significantly from those at a larger scale. 
Nanoscience is not just the science of the small, but the science in which 
materials with small dimension show new physical phenomena, collectively 
called quantum effects, which are size-dependent and dramatically different 
from the properties of macroscale materials. 
Bulk materials (the ‘big’ pieces of materials) possess continuous (macroscopic) physical properties. The same applies to micron-sized materials 
(e.g. a grain of sand). But when particles assume nanoscale dimensions, the 
principles of classic physics are no longer capable of describing their behaviour (movement, energy, etc.): at these dimensions, the principles of quantum mechanics principles. Nanotechnology is defined thus: 
‘Nanotechnology is the design, characterisation, production and application of structures, devices and systems by controlling shape and size at the 
nanometre scale.’ 
The nanometre scale is conventionally defined as 1 to 100 nm. One nanometre is one billionth of a metre (10-9 m). Nanoscience and nanotechnology deal with clusters of atoms of 1 nm in at least one dimension. 
For scale comparisons, the average human hair is about 80,000 nanometers wide, and a single virus particle is about 100 nanometers in width. The 
prefix nano-comes from the Greek word nenos, meaning "dwarf." Scientists 
originally used the prefix just to indicate "very small," as in "nanoplankton," 
but it now means one-billionth, just as milli- means one-thousandth, and 
micro- means one-millionth.  
The story of nanotechnology begins in the 1950s and 1960s, when most 
engineers were thinking big, not small. This was the era of big cars, big 
atomic bombs, big jets, and big plans for sending people into outer space. 
Other researchers, however, focused on making things small. The invention 
of the transistor in 1947 and the first integrated circuit (IС) in 1959 
launched an era of electronics miniaturization. 

As electronics engineers focused on making things smaller, engineers 
and scientists from other fields also turned their focus to small things - atoms and molecules. Usually the credit for inspiring nanotechnology goes to 
a lecture by Richard Phillips Feynman, a brilliant physicist. Feynman himself didn't use the word "nanotechnology"; in fact, only in the 1980s did this 
new field of study get a name – Nanotechnology. This new name was popularized by physicist K. Eric Drexler. 
Two main approaches are used in nanotechnology. In the "bottom-up" 
approach, materials and devices are built from molecular components which 
assemble themselves chemically by principles of molecular recognition. In 
the "top-down" approach, nano-objects are constructed from larger entities 
without atomic-level control. 
Areas of physics such as nanoelectronics, nanomechanics and nanophotonics have evolved during the last few decades to provide a basic scientific 
foundation of nanotechnology.  

Comprehension check 

5. Answer the questions about the text. 
1. What is nanotechnology? 
2. What does nanotechnology deal with? 
3. Is a nanometer one-billionth of a matter? 
5. How many approaches are used in nanotechnology? What are they? 
6. What do prefixes “milli” and “micro”mean? 
7. What areas of physics have evolved during the last few decades? 

6. Complete the sentences. 
1. Nanoscience is the study of …................ 
2. Bulk materials possess.................... 
3. In the "bottom-up" approach, materials and devices are built from ….. 
4. In the "top-down" approach, nanoobjects are constructed from …....... 
5. Nanoelectronics, nanomechanics and nanophotonics provide ….......... 

7. Say whether the following statements are true, false or not mentioned. 
1. Nanotechnology is creating an entirely new class of materials and  
devices with unique and potentially very useful properties. 
2. The physical dimensions of nanotechnology are small, spanning from 
just a few to tens of nanometers. 

3. Nanotechnology is very diverse, ranging from extensions of conventional device physics to completely new approaches based upon molecular 
self-assembly. 
4. Nowadays current interest in nanotechnology is not high. 
5. The field of nanotechnology is developing slowly as are its practical 
application. 
6. Unique nanoscale properties are already being used to increase energy 
efficiency and improve healthcare. 
Vocabulary development 

8. Give the English equivalents. 
иметь отношения, материал, подход, эволюционировать, интегральная схема, большой объем, традиционно, разнообразный, величина, открывать/запускать, сущность, собираться, пучок, обратить внимание 

9. Compare two columns of words and find Russian equivalents (from 
the right column) to the following English words (from the left one). 
1. на атомном и молекулярном 
уровне  
2. иметь дело со структурами размером в 100 миллимикронов   
3. как результат химического  
и физического взаимодействия    
4. изменять химические и физические свойства материалов  
5. улучшать эффективность катализаторов  
6. вырабатывать свет  
7. превращать пластичные материалы в твердые  
8. исследовать весь потенциал 
нанотехнологии  
9. характеризовать и предсказывать свойства наноструктур  
10. действие наноматериалов на 
глобальную экономику  
11. широкий спектр применения 
наноматериалов  
12. беспокойства по поводу токсичности наноматериалов

a) to improve efficiencies of catalysts  
b) as the result of physical and 
chemical interaction  
c) on an atomic and molecular scale  
d) to deal with structures of the size 
100 nanometers  
e) to alter physical and chemical 
properties of materials  
f) to characterize and predict properties of nanostructures  
g) to generate light 
h) to turn ductile materials into solids  
i) effects of nanomaterials on global 
economics  
j) to explore the full potential of 
nanotechnology  
k) concerns about the toxicity of nanomaterials  
l) a vast range of applications of nanomaterials 

Grammar focus 

Forms of the Infinitive 

 
Active 
Passive 

Indefinite (Simple) 
to write 
to be written 

Continuous 
to be writing 
x 

Perfect 
to have written 
to have been written 

Perfect Continuous 
to have been writing 
x 
 
 
Functions of the Infinitive 

Function 
The Infinitive 

subject 
 
to work with you. 
to be working with you. 
to have worked with you. 
to be examined by you. 
to have been examined by the doctor. 

predicative 
My goal is to work with you. 

object 
I want to work with you. 

adverbial modifier of 
 purpose 
 
 result 

I came here to work with you. 
I think I’m too old/clever enough to work 
with you 
There are many problems to solve. 

attribute 
The problem to be solved was concerned 
with fuel consumption. 

 

10. Determine syntactic functions of Infinitives in the following sentences and translate them. 

1. Richard Feynman was the first who predicted the election-beam lithography. The latter is used today to make silicon chips.  
2. The task to reduce the weight of cars and spacecrafts seemed to be 
feasible in the near future. 
3. Richard Feynman predicted the appearance of silicon chips to be produced by electron-beam lithography. 
4. A new type of a battery to be built in with the other circuitry on a clip 
was called a nanobattery. 

Speaking 

11. Brainstorm for the words or phrases you associate with nanotechnology. 

 

 

12. Do a survey. Work in pairs. Ask the students of your group their 
opinions on the question: Do nanoscience and nanotechnology do more 
good than harm, more harm than good, or about equal? What are their 
reasons. Discuss the results with your partner. Give reasons for your 
opinion. 

Public opinion poll 

Opinion more good than 
harm 
more harm 
than good 
about equal 
Total 

Yes 
 
 
 
 

No 
 
 
 
 

 
13. Make up a presentation on: “Nanotechnology and their potential 
in the future”. 
 

UNIT 2. NANOENGINEERING 

Before you read 

1. Work in pairs. Write a definition of the term “Nanoengineering”. 
2. Brainstorm the words that come to your mind when you think of 
Nanoengineering. 
 

 

 

3. What could we do with these nano-sized things? Complete this 
table with your partner(s).  

 
A good idea (why / not)? 
Uses 

Camera 
  
  

Apples 
  
  

Television 
  
  

Voice recorders 
  
  

Money 
  
  

 
4. Read the text and answer the questions below. 

Nanoengineering 

Nanoengineering is one field of nanotechnology. Nanotechnology is an 
umbrella term that encompasses all fields of science that operate on the nanoscale.* A nanometer is one billionth of a meter, or three to five atoms in 
width. It would take approximately 40,000 nanometers lined up in a row to 

equal the width of a human hair. Nanoengineering concerns itself with manipulating processes that occur on the scale of 1-100 nanometers.  
The general term, nanotechnology, is sometimes used to refer to common products that have improved properties due to being fortified with nanoscale materials. One example is nano-improved tooth-colored enamel, as 
used by dentists for fillings.* The general use of the term “nanotechnology” 
then differs from the more specific sciences that fall under its heading. 
Nanoengineering is an interdisciplinary science that builds biochemical 
structures smaller than bacterium, which function like microscopic factories.* This is possible by utilizing basic biochemical processes at the atomic 
or molecular level. In simple terms, molecules interact through natural processes, and nanoengineering takes advantage of those processes by direct 
manipulation. 
Nanoengineering, in its infancy, has seen some early successes with using 
DNA as a catalyst to self-assemble simple structures. In 2006 a Brown University research team was able to grow zinc oxide nanowires of approximately 100-200 nm in length by fusing snippets of synthetic DNA to carbon nanotubes.* DNA, nature’s manual for creating matter from the bottom up, is of 
particular interest in the field of nanoengineering. By assembling specific 
DNA code a nanoengineer can set up the conditions for the genetic code to 
perform tasks that result in the biochemical assembly of nanomaterials.  

Comprehension check 

5. Answer the questions. 
1. What does Nanoengineering mean? 
2. What does Nanoengineering deal with? 
3. What is the role of Nanoengineering in relation to DNA? 

6. Explain how you understand the italicized words and phrases in 
the text. 
7. Give an adequate translation of the sentences marked with an  
asterisk. 

Vocabulary development 

8. Match the terms with the corresponding definitions. 
1. nanocluster 
a) an extremely thin wire with a diameter on the 
order of a few nanometers (nm) or less
2. nanocrystal 
b) nanoscale material that has a tube-like structure