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Micro- and Nanoelectronics

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Учебное пособие предназначено для студентов 2го курса РЭФ для использования на занятиях в рамках дисциплины «Иностранный язык». Целью пособия является формирование у студентов коммуникативной компетенции в области своей специальности, которая реализуется в различных видах речевой деятельности, как устной, так и письменной. Учебное пособие включает 4 раздела. Три из них направлены на развитие навыков устной и письменной речи, чтения: «Electronics» («Электроника»), «Microelectronics and Nanoelectronics» («Микроэлектроника и наноэлектроника»), «Multichannel Communication » («Многоканальные средства связи»). Четвёртый раздел содержит теоретические и практические материалы по теме «Non-Finite Forms of the Verb» («Неличные формы глагола»).
Голышева, М. Д. Micro- and Nanoelectronics : учебное пособие / М. Д. Голышева, Е. В. Гужева, С. В. Никрошкина. - Новосибирск : Изд-во НГТУ, 2019. - 64 с. - ISBN 978-5-7782-3875-6. - Текст : электронный. - URL: https://znanium.com/catalog/product/1866024 (дата обращения: 21.07.2024). – Режим доступа: по подписке.
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Министерство науки и высшего образования Российской Федерации 

НОВОСИБИРСКИЙ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННЫЙ ТЕХНИЧЕСКИЙ УНИВЕРСИТЕТ 

 
 
 
 
 
 
М.Д. ГОЛЫШЕВА,  
Е.В. ГУЖЕВА, С.В. НИКРОШКИНА 
 
 
 
 
 
MICRO-  
AND NANOELECTRONICS 
 
Утверждено Редакционно-издательским советом университета 
в качестве учебного пособия 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
НОВОСИБИРСК 
2019 

 

ББК 81.432.1-7-923 
        Г 629 
 
 

Рецензенты: 

канд. филол. наук, доцент Е.С. Замашанская, 
канд. псих. наук, доцент Ю.В. Клюева 
 
 
Работа выполнена на кафедре иностранных языков ТФ НГТУ 
 
Голышева М.Д. 
Г 629   
Micro- and Nanoelectronics: учебное пособие / М.Д. Голышева, Е.В. Гужева, С.В. Никрошкина. – Новосибирск: Изд-во 
НГТУ, 2019. – 64 с. 

ISBN 978-5-7782-3875-6 

Учебное пособие предназначено для студентов 2го курса РЭФ для 
использования на занятиях в рамках дисциплины «Иностранный 
язык». 
Целью пособия является формирование у студентов коммуникативной компетенции в области своей специальности, которая реализуется в различных видах речевой деятельности, как устной, так и 
письменной. Учебное пособие включает 4 раздела. Три из них 
направлены на развитие навыков устной и письменной речи, чтения: 
«Electronics» («Электроника»), «Microelectronics and Nanoelectronics» 
(«Микроэлектроника и наноэлектроника»), «Multichannel Communication» («Многоканальные средства связи»). Четвёртый раздел содержит теоретические и практические материалы по теме «Non-Finite 
Forms of the Verb» («Неличные формы глагола»). 
 
 
 
ББК 81.432.1-7-923 
 
 
ISBN 978-5-7782-3875-6  
 
 
 
 
 
© Голышева М.Д., Гужева Е.В.,  
    Никрошкина С.В., 2019 
© Новосибирский государственный  
    технический университет, 2019 

 

CONTENTS 

 

Module I. Electronics ............................................................................................... 4 
   Unit 1. Electonics .................................................................................................... 4 
      Text 1 ................................................................................................................... 4 
      Text 2 ................................................................................................................... 7 
   Unit 2. Semiconductors ......................................................................................... 11 
      Text 3 ................................................................................................................. 11 
      Text 4 ................................................................................................................. 14 
      Text 5 ................................................................................................................. 14 

Module II. Microelectronics and Nanoelectronics .............................................. 21 
   Unit 1. Microelectronics ....................................................................................... 21 
      Text 1 ................................................................................................................. 23 
      Text 2 ................................................................................................................. 26 
   Unit 2. Nanoelectronics ........................................................................................ 27 
      Text 3 ................................................................................................................. 27 
      Text 4 ................................................................................................................. 30 

Module III. Multichannel Communications ........................................................ 32 
   Unit 1.  Multichannel Communications ................................................................ 32 
      Text 1 ................................................................................................................. 32 
      Text 2 ................................................................................................................. 35 
   Unit 2. Methods of Multiplexing Data .................................................................. 40 
      Text 3 ................................................................................................................. 40 
      Text 4 ................................................................................................................. 45 

Supplementary Texts ............................................................................................. 50 

Module IV. Non-finite Forms of the Verb ........................................................... 53 
   The Participle ........................................................................................................ 53 
   The Gerund ........................................................................................................... 56 
   The Infinitive ........................................................................................................ 59 

References ............................................................................................................... 62 

 

MODULE I 

ELECTRONICS 

Unit 1. Electronics 

TEXT 1 

Vocabulary: 

applied physics 
[әˈplaɪd ˈfɪzɪks] 
прикладная физика 

generation, n 
[ʤenәˈreɪʃn] 
создание, формирование, 
выработка 
scientific research 
[saɪәnˈtɪfɪk rɪˈsɜːʧ] научные исследования 

due to the efforts 
[djuː] 
[ˈefәt] 
благодаря усилиям 

manipulation, n 
[mәnɪpjʊˈleɪʃn] 
управление; обработка; 
преобразование 

to replace vacuum tubes 
[rɪˈpleɪs] 
[ˈvækjʊәm tjuːbz] 
заменять электронные 
лампы 

a piece of semiconductor [piːs] 
[ˈsemɪkәnˈdʌktә] 
полупроводниковый кристалл 

reduced weight 
[rɪˈdjuːst] 
[weɪt] 
уменьшенный вес 

power consumption 
[ˈpaʊә kәnˈsʌmpʃn] потребление (расход) 
электроэнергии 
to carry out, v 
[ˈkærɪ aʊt] 
выполнять; осуществлять 

solid body 
[ˈsɔlɪd ˈbɔdɪ] 
твердое тело; кристалл; 
полупроводник 
to respond, v 
[rɪsˈpɔnd] 
отвечать; реагировать 

at a rate 
[æt ә reɪt] 
со скоростью 
integrated circuit (IС) 
[ˈɪntɪgreɪtɪd ˈsɜːkɪt] интегральная схема 
batch processing 
[bæʧ ˈprәʊsesɪŋ] 
пакетная обработка 
to assemble, v 
[әˈsembl] 
собирать; монтировать 

to lower manufacturing 
[ˈlәʊә] 
[mænjʊˈfækʧәrɪŋ] 
снизить производительность 
to increase reliability 
[ˈɪnkriːs rɪlaɪәˈbɪlɪtɪ] увеличить надежность 

1. Answer these questions: 

1. What springs to your mind when you hear the word “electronics”? 
Put down as many associations as you can: 

 

2. Using the mind map given above think of the definition to the term 
“electronics”. 
3. How has electronics changed the life of people? 
4. What do you know about the most important breakthroughs in electronics? 
5. Can you imagine your life without electronic devices? Why? 
6. What is the future of electronics? 

2. Read the text below and answer the questions: 

1. What does electronics study? 
2. What discoveries contributed to its development? 

DEVELOPMENT OF ELECTRONICS 

Electronics is a field of engineering and applied physics dealing with the 
design and application of electronic circuits. The operation of circuits depends on the flow of electrons for generation, transmission, reception and 
storage of information. 

Today it is difficult to imagine our life without electronics. It surrounds 
us everywhere. Electronic devices are widely used in scientific research and 
industrial designing, they control the work of plants and power stations, calculate the trajectories of space-ships and help the people discover new phenomena of nature. Automatization of production processes and studies on 
living organisms became possible due to electronics. 
The invention of vacuum tubes at the beginning of the 20th century was 
the starting point of the rapid growth of modern electronics. Vacuum tubes 
assisted in manipulation of signals. The development of a large variety of 
tubes designed for specialized functions made possible the progress in radio 
communication technology before the World War II and in the creation of 
early computers during and shortly after the war. 
The transistor invented by American scientists W. Shockly, J. Bardeen 
and W. Brattain in 1948 completely replaced the vacuum tube. The transistor, a small piece of a semiconductor with three electrodes, had great advantages over the best vacuum tubes. It provided the same functions as the 
vacuum tube but at reduced weight, cost, power consumption, and with high 
reliability. With the invention of the transistor all essential circuit functions 
could be carried out inside solid bodies. The aim of creating electronic circuits with entirely solid-state components had finally been realized. Early 
transistors could respond at a fate of a few million times a second. This was 
fast enough to serve in radio circuits, but far below the speed needed for 
high speed computers or for microwave communication systems. 
The progress in semiconductor technology led to the development of the 
integrated circuit (IС), which was discovered due to the efforts of John Kilby in 1958. There appeared a new field of science – integrated electronics. 
The essence of it is batch processing. Instead of making, testing and assembling discrete components on a chip one at a time, large groupings of these 
components together with their interconnections were made all at a time. IС 
greatly reduced the size of devices, lowered manufacturing costs and at the 
same time they provided high speed and increased reliability. 

3. Answer the questions: 

1. What is electronics? 
2. Where are electronic devices used? 
3. What was the beginning of electronics development? 
4. What made the progress in radio communication technology possible? 
5. When was the transistor invented? 

6. What aim was realized with the invention of the transistor? 
7. When were integrated circuits discovered? 
8. What advantages did the transistors have over the vacuum tubes? 

4. Guess the meaning of the following international  
    words and phrases: 

Electrons; physics; information; microelectronics; industrial design; to 
calculate trajectories; phenomena of nature; automatization of production 
processes; organisms; vacuum tubes; specialized functions; progress in radio communication technology; transistor; electrode; components; to realize; communication system; technology; discrete components; chip. 

5. Find equivalents in the text: 

Прикладная физика; передача и прием информации; поток электронов; научные исследования; промышленное проектирование; обнаруживать явления природы; отправная точка; способствовать управлению сигналами; быстрый рост; создание первых компьютеров; полупроводниковый кристалл; потребление электроэнергии; высокая 
надежность; твердотельные компоненты; высокоскоростной компьютер; микроволновые системы связи; полупроводниковая технология; 
область науки; интегральная схема; пакетная обработка; сборка дискретных компонентов на кристалле; снизить производственные затраты; обеспечить высокую скорость. 

6. Make a 2-3 minute report about the importance of electronics.  
    Support your ideas with different examples. 

TEXT 2 

Vocabulary: 

large-scale, adj [ˈlɑːʤˈskeɪl] – крупномасштабный 
powerful amplifier [ˈpaʊәfʊl ˈæmplɪfaɪә] – мощный усилитель 
broadcasting, g [ˈbrɔːdkɑːstɪŋ] – вещание 
to enumerate, v [ɪˈnjuːmәreɪt] – перечислять 
applied science [әˈplaɪd ˈsaɪәns] – прикладная наука 
trajectory, n [ˈtræʤɪktәrɪ] – траектория 
wafer-thin piece [ˈweɪfә θɪn piːs] – тонкая пластина 
reliability, n [rɪlaɪәˈbɪlɪtɪ] – надежность 
puzzling phenomena [ˈpʌzlɪŋ fɪˈnɔmɪnә] – загадочные явления 
to give rise to [gɪv raɪz tuː] – привести к 
commonplace, n [ˈkɔmәnpleɪs] – банальность 

APPLICATION OF ELECTRONICS 

Large-scale application of electronics made it possible to revolutionize 
our life. At present it is difficult to enumerate all branches of science and 
technology, which are based on electronic techniques. 
Electronics surrounds us everywhere. It seems to influence every aspect 
of human activity. Electronics is at the heart of TV and radio reception, 
broadcasting, radio and sound location, electronic computation and so on. 
Huge radio telescopes, equipped with sensitive instruments and powerful amplifiers enable men to penetrate onto the remotest corners of space, 
discover new and puzzling phenomena of nature. Electronic computers calculate the trajectories of spaceships, launch and control the rockets. It is the 
intensive development of radiolocation that gave start to radio electronics. 
For a long time electronics was used only for communication and for ensuring amplification and transformation of various signals in applied sciences. 
Soon men witnessed another stage in the development of electronics. Integrated circuits came into being (появились). Their application allowed engineers to reduce the dimensions of electronic devices and increase their 
reliability. 
The development of the transistor initiated the development of microelectronic devices. Very small electronic circuits of great reliability were 
needed by those organizations, which were concerned with sending equipment into space since the weight of the missile was of primary importance. 
Microelectronic devices (integrated circuits) are made from wafer-thin 
pieces of semiconductor material, such as silicon. A small chip of silicon 
can contain a very large number of electronic components built into the circuit. 
Integrated circuits (IC) have a wide variety of processing and storage 
functions. Today it is possible to have all circuits needed for a microcomputer, for example, on a single semiconductor chip, which is about the same 
size as the early ICs that contained only a few components. Large-Scale Integrated circuits (LSI), containing thousands of components, are now commonplace. Each IC (chip) is mounted in a package so that electrical connections can be made. 
The availability of these small microelectronic devices allows the electromechanical devices in industrial and domestic equipment to be replaced 
by much more compact control systems, and has given rise to developments 
in automation which were not previously possible. 

1. Read the text and answer the questions: 

1. Why did large-scale application of electronics make it possible to 
revolutionize our life? 
2. What are the main applications of electronics? 
3. What was electronics used for during a long period of time? 
4. What did the development of a transistor lead to? 
5. Where is a small chip of silicon built into? 
6. What does it contain? 
7. Can you name the main functions of integrated circuits? 
8. How does the availability of small microelectronic devices contribute 
to the developments in automation? 

2. Read the following statements and decide if they are true 
    or false or not mentioned. In case the statement is false, correct it. 

1. Microelectronic devices (integrated circuits) are made from silicon. 
2. Polycrystalline silicon, also called polysilicon, is a material consisting 
of small silicon crystals. 
3. The application of integrated circuits allowed engineers to increase 
the dimensions of electronic devices and decrease their reliability. 
4. The operation of circuits depends on the flow of electrons for generation, transmission, reception and storage of information. 
5. Electronic computers aren`t able to calculate the trajectories of spaceships, launch and control the rockets. 
6. Vacuum tubes assisted in manipulation of signals. 
7. The development of microelectronic devices was caused by the development of the transistor. 
8. Integrated circuits (IC) aren`t capable to process and store information. 

3. Match the words with their definitions: 

1. circuit 
a) the fact that something is possible to get, buy or find 

2. allow 
b) to have something inside it or as part of it 

3. spaceship 
c) the gradual growth of something so that it becomes more 
advanced, stronger, etc. 

4. flow 
d) the complete path of wires and equipment along which an 
electric current flows 

5. contribute 
e) to let somebody/something do something 

О к о н ч а н и е  т а б л и ц ы  

6. development 
f) a vehicle that travels in space, carrying people 

7. availability 
g) the steady and continuous movement of something/somebody in one direction 

8. contain 
h) to increase, improve or add to something 

4. Complete the sentences using words from the text: 

         penetrated                remote  control                      integrated circuits 

     silicon chip                  circuits of great reliability          amplification 

               powerful amplifiers                             semiconductor  chips 

1. Powered by tiny ____________ containing computing elements, these microcomputers systems are now being applied to literally thousands of 
applications. 
2. Few U.S. companies have successfully ____________ the Japanese 
electronics market. 
3._______________ exert greater control over a loudspeaker. 
4. Because of their extremely small size, _______________ tend to be 
restricted to low power applications. 
5. Very small electronic _______________ were needed by those organizations, which were concerned with sending equipment into space. 
6. The manufacturing of a _____________ starts when silica, the main 
component of sand, is heated with carbon 
7. The _____________ of voltage or power is the out-standing function 
that vacuum tubes are able to perform. 
8. This paper writes about system developed for controlling electronic 
devices such as motors, bulbs, sensors and servo motors by ____________ 
system operated by microcontroller. 

5. Prepare a short presentation about a Nobel Prize Winner 
    in the field of electronics. 

 
 
 
 

Unit 2. Semiconductors 

TEXT 3 

Vocabulary: 

important advances – важные достижения 
resistivity, n [rɪzɪsˈtɪvɪtɪ] – удельное сопротивление 
compound, n [ˈkɔmpaʊnd] – соединение 
crystalline, adj [ˈkrɪstәlaɪn] – кристаллический 
amorphous, adj [әˈmɔːfәs] – аморфный, бесформенный, некристаллический 
intrinsic and extrinsic, adj  [ɪnˈtrɪnsɪk],[eksˈtrɪnsɪk] – внутренний и 
внешний 
silicon, n [ˈsɪlɪkәn] – кремний 
germanium, n [ʤɜːˈmeɪnɪәm] – германий 
gallium, n [ˈgælɪәm] – галлий 
arsenide, n [ˈɑːsnaɪd] – арсенид 
aluminium, n [æljʊˈmɪnjәm] – алюминий 
cadmium sulfide [ˈkædmɪәm ˈsʌlfaɪd] – сульфид кадмия 
copper oxide [ˈkɔpә ˈɔksaɪd] – оксид меди 
charge carrier [ʧɑːʤ ˈkærɪә] – носитель заряда 
vacant, adj [ˈveɪkәnt] – вакантный 
bulky vacuum tubes [ˈbʌlkɪ ˈvækjʊәm tjuːbz] – громоздкие вакуумные 
трубки 
indispensable, adj [ɪndɪsˈpensәbl] – необходимый 
ruggedness, n [ˈrʌgɪdnәs] – прочность 
magnitude, n [ˈmægnɪtjuːd] – величина 
doping, g [dәʊpɪŋ] – легирование 
oscillator, n [ˈɔsɪleɪtә] – осциллятор 
superior, adj  [sjuːˈpɪәrɪә] – превосходный 

TRANSISTORS AND SEMICONDUCTORS 

One of the important advances in the development of electronics is the 
invention of semiconductor materials, a form of matter situated between 
metals and insulators in their ability to conduct electricity. 
The semiconductor is an electric conductor with resistivity in the range 
between metals and insulators, in which the electric charge – carrier concentration increases with the increasing temperature range. Semiconductors are