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Социальная инклюзия: Нерешенные проблемы и новые вызовы = Social Inclusion: Unresolved Issues and New Challenges

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В учебнике рассматривается один из наиболее актуальных вопросов современной социальной повестки — построение инклюзивного общества. Тематика учебника охватывает проблемы имущественного, гендерного и возрастного равенства; обеспечения прав людей с инвалидностью, иммигрантов и языковых меньшинств; инклюзивного образования, боди-позитива и правового статуса животных. Учебник построен на современных аутентичных материалах (официальных документах, газетных и журнальных статьях, публичных выступлениях) и содержит комплекс упражнений, направленных на совершенствование навыков речевого общения на английском языке, расширение актуального словарного запаса, развитие аналитических навыков и навыков критического мышления. Учебник предназначен для студентов образовательных программ магистратуры по направлению «Иностранные языки и межкультурная коммуникация». Он может использоваться при работе с магистрантами других гуманитарных специальностей при наличии высокого уровня языковой подготовки.
Нагорная, А. В. Социальная инклюзия: Нерешенные проблемы и новые вызовы = Social Inclusion: Unresolved Issues and New Challenges : учебник / А. В. Нагорная. - Москва : ФЛИНТА, 2021. - 288 с. - ISBN 978-5-9765-4442-0. - Текст : электронный. - URL: https://znanium.com/catalog/product/1863844 (дата обращения: 23.07.2024). – Режим доступа: по подписке.
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А.В. Нагорная

СОЦИАЛЬНАЯ ИНКЛЮЗИЯ
Нерешенные проблемы и новые вызовы
____________________

SOCIAL INCLUSION
Unresolved Issues and New Challenges

Учебник

Москва
Издательство «ФЛИНТА»
2021

УДК 811.111+316.6(075.8)
ББК 81.432.1+88.5я73

Н16

Р е ц е н з е н т ы:

д-р филол. наук, ведущий научный сотрудник Отдела языкознания,  

зав. Отделом развития ресурсного потенциала ИНИОН РАН Л.Р. Комалова;

д-р филол., проф., проф. кафедры иностранных языков, межкультурной  
коммуникации и перевода Пермского национального исследовательского

политехнического университета Н.М. Нестерова

А в то р

Александра Викторовна Нагорная — д-р филол. наук,

проф. Школы иностранных языков Национального исследовательского 
университета «Высшая школа экономики»

ISBN 978-5-9765-4442-0

В учебнике рассматривается один из наиболее актуальных вопросов совре
менной социальной повестки — построение инклюзивного общества. Тематика 
учебника охватывает проблемы имущественного, гендерного и возрастного 
равенства; обеспечения прав людей с инвалидностью, иммигрантов и языковых меньшинств; инклюзивного образования, боди-позитива и правового 
статуса животных. Учебник построен на современных аутентичных материалах (официальных документах, газетных и журнальных статьях, публичных 
выступлениях) и содержит комплекс упражнений, направленных на совершенствование навыков речевого общения на английском языке, расширение 
актуального словарного запаса, развитие аналитических навыков и навыков
критического мышления.

Учебник предназначен для студентов образовательных программ маги
стратуры по направлению «Иностранные языки и межкультурная коммуникация». Он может использоваться при работе с магистрантами других гуманитарных специальностей при наличии высокого уровня языковой подготовки.

УДК 811.111+316.6(075.8)
ББК 81.432.1+88.5я73

ISBN 978-5-9765-4442-0 
© Нагорная А.В., 2021
© Издательство «ФЛИНТА», 2021

Нагорная А.В.
   Социальная инклюзия: Нерешенные проблемы и новые вызовы = Social 
Inclusion: Unresolved Issues and New Challenges [Электронный ресурс] : 
учебник / А.В. Нагорная. — Москва : ФЛИНТА, 2021. — 288 с.

Н16

CONTENTS

Foreword ................................................................................................................7

UNIT 1. Defining Social Inclusion .......................................................................9
Introduction ......................................................................................................9
Text 1. Inclusion Matters: The Foundation for Shared Prosperity ..................9
TED Talk 1. Helen Turnbull. Inclusion, Exclusion, Illusion  
and Collusion ................................................................................................. 16
Text 2. Beyond Transition: Towards Inclusive Societies:  
Recommendations .......................................................................................... 18
TED Talk 2. Mary Bassett. Why Your Doctor Should Care about Social 
Justice .............................................................................................................26
Final Discussion .............................................................................................28

UNIT 2. Poverty as a Driver of Social Exclusion ...............................................29
Introduction ....................................................................................................29
Text 1. Michael D. Tanner. Why Are People Poor? .......................................29
TED Talk 1. Richard Wilkinson. How Economic Inequality  
Harms Societies .............................................................................................36
Text 2. Max Fisher and Emma Bubola. As Coronavirus Deepens  
Inequality, Inequality Worsens Its Spread .....................................................39
TED Talk 2. Rutger Bregman. Poverty Isn’t a Lack of Character;  
It’s a Lack of Cash ..........................................................................................47
Final Discussion .............................................................................................49

UNIT 3. Disability Inclusion ...............................................................................50
Introduction ....................................................................................................50
Text 1. Brigitte Rohwerder. Disability Inclusion. Background: Definitions, 
Concepts and History .....................................................................................50
TED Talk 1. Charlotte McClain-Nhlapo. Why It Is Time to Make Inclusive 
Development Inclusive ...................................................................................58

Text 2. Ted Kennedy Jr. Hiring People with Disabilities Is Good  
Business .........................................................................................................60
TED Talk 2. Elise Roy. When We Design for Disability, We All Benefit ....... 66
Final Discussion .............................................................................................70

UNIT 4. Challenges of Inclusive Education........................................................71
Introduction ....................................................................................................71
Text 1. Lilla Dale McManis. Inclusive Education: What It Means,  
Proven Strategies, and a Case Study..............................................................71
TED Talk 1. Sarah Rosenbloom. Inclusive Education Paves the Path  
for Development .............................................................................................79
Text 2. Rachael Sharman. Can Inclusive Education Do More Harm Than 
Good? .............................................................................................................82
TED Talk 2. Jan Wilson. Reimagining Disability & Inclusive Education ...... 87
Final Discussion .............................................................................................90

UNIT 5. Immigrant Inclusion: Issues and Debates ............................................. 91
Introduction .................................................................................................... 91
Text 1. Immigrant Inclusion: Good for Families, Communities,  
and the Economy ............................................................................................ 91
TED Talk 1. Paul A. Kramer. Our Immigration Conversation is Broken — 
Here is How to Have a Better One ...............................................................100
Text 2. George J. Borjas. Yes, Immigration Hurts American Workers ....... 103
TED Talk 2. Alexander Betts. Why Brexit Happened — and What  
to Do Next .................................................................................................... 110
Final Discussion ........................................................................................... 113

UNIT 6. Social Inclusion and Language Rights ............................................... 114
Introduction .................................................................................................. 114
Text 1. What Are Language Rights? ............................................................ 114
TED Talk 1. Lindsay Morcom. A History of Indigenous Languages —  
and How to Revitalize Them .......................................................................122
Text 2. James Griffiths. The Internet Threatened to Speed up the Death  
of Endangered Languages. Could It Save Them Instead? ...........................124
TED Talk 2. Daniel Bögre Udell. How to Save a Language from  
Extinction .....................................................................................................134
Final Discussion ........................................................................................... 136

UNIT 7. Say No to Ageism ................................................................................ 138
Introduction .................................................................................................. 138
Text 1. AGE Platform Europe Position on Structural Ageism .................... 138
TED Talk 1. Ashton Applewhite. Let’s End Ageism ................................... 147
Text 2. Natalie d’Arbeloff. ‘There Are No Rules in Age’: Confession  
of an Almost 90-Year-Old ............................................................................ 150
TED Talk 2. Jane Fonda. Life’s Third Act ................................................... 155
Final Discussion ........................................................................................... 157

UNIT 8. Gender Equality: Should Anatomy Be Destiny?................................ 158
Introduction .................................................................................................. 158
Text 1. Joyce Mushaben. The Fourth Wave of Feminism: Europe’s  
New Gender Equality Agenda ..................................................................... 158
TED Talk 1. Michael Kimmel. Why Gender Equality Is Good  
for Everyone — Men Included.....................................................................164
Text 2. Sam Levin. ‘Erasure of an Entire Group’: Intersex People Fear 
Trump Anti-Trans Memo ............................................................................. 167
TED Talk 2. Paula Stone Williams. I’ve Lived as a Man and a Woman. 
Here’s What I Learned ................................................................................. 175
Final Discussion ........................................................................................... 177

UNIT 9. Body Positivity: Embracing Physical Diversity ................................. 179
Introduction .................................................................................................. 179
Text 1. Kendra Cherry. What Is Body Positivity? ....................................... 179
TED Talk 1. Kelli Jean Drinkwater. Enough with the Fear of Fat .............. 188
Text 2. Cassie Augustine. When Does Body Positivity Become Health 
Negativity? ...................................................................................................190
TED Talk 2. Meaghan Ramsey. Why Thinking You’re Ugly Is Bad  
for You .......................................................................................................... 198
Final Discussion ...........................................................................................200

UNIT 10. Animal Rights in an Inclusive Society ............................................. 201
Introduction .................................................................................................. 201
Text 1. UN Convention on Animal Health and Protection (UNCAHP)......202
TED Talk 1. Lesli Bisgould. It’s Time to Re-Evaluate Our Relationship  
with Animals ................................................................................................208
Text 2. What Is Speciesism? ........................................................................ 210

TED Talk 2. Jacy Reese. Why We Should End Animal Agriculture .......... 216
Final Discussion ........................................................................................... 219

Extra vocabulary Рractice ..................................................................................220
Unit 1 . ...........................................................................................................220
Unit 2 . ...........................................................................................................222
Unit 3 . ...........................................................................................................225
Unit 4 . ...........................................................................................................227
Unit 5 . ...........................................................................................................230
Unit 6 ............................................................................................................232
Unit 7 ............................................................................................................235
Unit 8 ............................................................................................................237
Unit 9 ............................................................................................................239
Unit 10 . ......................................................................................................... 241

Reader ................................................................................................................245
Introduction ..................................................................................................245
Unit 1 . ...........................................................................................................246
Unit 2 . ...........................................................................................................249
Unit 3 ............................................................................................................252
Unit 4 . ...........................................................................................................254
Unit 5 . ...........................................................................................................258
Unit 6 . ...........................................................................................................262
Unit 7 . ...........................................................................................................269
Unit 8 . ...........................................................................................................273
Unit 9 ............................................................................................................276
Unit 10 ...........................................................................................................279

Sources . ..............................................................................................................283

FOREWORD

Social inclusion is one of the key components of the current political, 
economic and cultural agenda. It is usually defined as the process of 
improving the terms of participation in society, particularly for people who 
are disadvantaged, through enhancing opportunities, access to resources, 
and respect for rights. 
The principle of social inclusion is enshrined in the UN 2030 Agenda for 
Sustainable Development, adopted in 2015. The Heads of State and Government 
and High Representatives who met at the United Nations Headquarters in 
New York set out an ambitious and transformational vision:

We envisage a world of universal respect for human rights and human 
dignity, the rule of law, justice, equality and non-discrimination; of respect 
for race, ethnicity and cultural diversity; and of equal opportunity permitting 
the full realization of human potential and contributing to shared prosperity. 
A world which invests in its children and in which every child grows up 
free from violence and exploitation. A world in which every woman and 
girl enjoys full gender equality and all legal, social and economic barriers 
to their empowerment have been removed. A just, equitable, tolerant, open 
and socially inclusive world in which the needs of the most vulnerable 
are met*.

In order to make this vision a reality, we need to raise public awareness 
of the global challenges and offer new conceptual lenses that would help us 
dismantle deeply rooted stereotypes and biases and become a more tolerant 
community accepting of individual differences and ready to embrace cultural 
pluralism. 
This book is an attempt to popularize some of the hottest topics within 
the current social inclusion debate. 

* https://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/post2015/transformingourworld

Social inclusion is an issue which possesses an enormous didactic and 
linguistic potential. On the one hand, it expands students’ knowledge of 
the most topical issues that are widely discussed nowadays and form the 
communicative context which they will encounter in a variety of professional 
and informal settings. On the other hand, it broadens their linguistic horizons 
equipping them with the most up-to-date, trendy vocabulary used in speaking 
about contemporary concerns. Mastering this vocabulary will help students 
gain confidence and make them competent communicators. The students 
will also gain knowledge of the most relevant communication strategies and 
persuasion tactics. 
Thus, the objectives of this textbook are:
 • to familiarize the students with the current social inclusion agenda;
 • to strengthen their analytical ability;
 • to develop critical thinking skills;
 • to refine discussion skills;
 • to increase competence in reading, listening and speaking;
 • to enlarge productive vocabulary;
 • to improve general fluency in English.
The book is divided into ten thematic units, each of them containing two 
texts and two TED Talks. The texts include official documents (conventions, 
charters, declarations, etc.), newspaper and magazine articles, research papers 
and blogs — the types of text the students are most likely to deal with in their 
professional careers. The TED Talks are thematically linked to the texts and 
further develop the ideas conveyed in them. Each section of the unit has a 
set of exercises focusing on the content of the text or talk and the vocabulary 
used in them. At the end of each unit, there is a list of questions for research 
and debate, which is designed to inspire lively discussions and help shape 
an interactive learning environment. 
The units are supplemented with Extra Vocabulary Activities and a 
Reader. The Extra Vocabulary Activities section includes lists of vocabulary 
units for each unit and exercises for translation aimed at revising the acquired 
vocabulary. The Reader contains extra reading materials for independent 
learning. 

UNIT 1 

DEFINING SOCIAL INCLUSION

INTRODUCTION

Discuss the following:
1. What does the term inclusion generally mean? What does its  
opposite — exclusion — imply? 
2. Social inclusion is usually defined as “the process of improving the 
terms for individuals and groups to take part in society” or “the process of 
improving the ability, opportunity, and dignity of people, disadvantaged on 
the basis of their identity, to take part in society”. Which definition do you 
prefer and why?
3. How would you define social exclusion?

TEXT 1

BEFORE YOU READ

1. Do you think the following statements are true or false?
1. Social exclusion primarily stems from poverty.
2. Social exclusion is limited to the poorest countries with tyrannical 
regimes.
3. Social inclusion is primarily an economic issue.
4. Social inclusion is difficult to achieve.
5. Social exclusion is deeply rooted in many cultures and is thus immutable.

WHILE YOU READ

2. Read the text and check your answers to No. 1.

INCLUSION MATTERS:  
THE FOUNDATION FOR SHARED PROSPERITY
(from: Inclusion Matters: The Foundations for Shared Prosperity,  
pp. XV—XVII)

In every country, certain groups — whether illegal immigrants, indigenous 
people, or other minorities — confront barriers that prevent them from 
fully participating in their nation’s political, economic, and social life. 
These groups are branded by stereotypes, stigmas, and superstitions. They 
often live with insecurity. And such disadvantages not only preclude them 
from capitalizing on opportunities to lead a better life, they also rob them 
of dignity. 
In many countries, excluded people have organized to right a lifetime 
of wrongs. These newly active citizens include victims of violence who are 
demanding justice, or members of growing middle classes demanding greater 
voice in their countries’ political processes. They come armed or simply angry, 
protesting in Brazil or India, and occupying Wall Street or Tahrir Square. 
Taken together, their outrage demonstrates a global crisis of inclusion. 
At the World Bank Group, we have realized that confronting the need for 
social inclusion will prove vital if we are to meet our goal of building shared 
prosperity for all people. While great strides have been made in reducing 
extreme poverty, in country after country, groups remain excluded from 
development gains. A rising tide does not necessarily lift all boats. 
Acknowledging this, in May 2013, the United Nations (UN) Secretary 
General’s High-Level Panel of Eminent Persons on the Post-2015 Development 
Agenda called for designing development goals that focus on reaching 
excluded groups. “Leave no one behind,” they urged the Secretary-General, 
adding, “We should ensure that no person — regardless of ethnicity, gender, 
geography, disability, race, or status — is denied universal human rights and 
basic economic opportunities.” 
Including the excluded is a complex challenge. At the World Bank Group, we 
begin where we always do: by surveying, sifting, and analyzing the evidence. 
The result of that work is this evidence-based study of social inclusion. It is 
the first of its kind for the Bank Group. We believe it represents one of the 
most comprehensive reviews of social inclusion available. While more work 
is needed, our research allows us to say a few things with confidence:

Ostracized groups exist in all countries, rich and poor, democratic and 
not. They are often hidden from public censuses, made invisible by their fear 
of reprisal. Still, they can be found. In Vietnam, for example, where poverty 
reduction has been impressive, indigenous people are less likely to be covered 
by health programs or receive essential vaccinations. In the United States, 
African Americans were twice as likely as whites to be unemployed during 
the recent financial crisis. In Bolivia, ethnic minority Quechua-speaking 
women are 28 percentage points less likely to complete secondary school 
than Spanish-speaking Bolivian men.
Excluded groups are denied opportunities. Excluded groups are significantly 
less likely to receive the benefits of development investments. In Uganda, 
for example, where electricity coverage is low, almost half of respondents 
from the Buganda group reported having electricity, compared to less than 
5 percent of the minority Lugbara and Ngakaramajong populations. The 
same breakdown appears in terms of access to clean water. Some excluded 
groups have been denied opportunities for hundreds of years, such as Native 
Americans in the United States.
Poverty and exclusion are not the same. In some societies, even the 
rich can be excluded, as might be the case with wealthy homosexual men in 
some African countries. The protest movements in the Middle East have been 
fueled in part by demands among middle-class citizens for greater inclusion 
in public decision making and accountability from political leaders.
Exclusion is costly. Measuring the cost of exclusion has methodological 
challenges, but the costs — whether social, political, or economic — are likely 
to be substantial. Occupational segregation can restrict the free movement of 
talent and resources, resulting in productivity losses to an entire economy. 
One study found that exclusion of the ethnic minority Roma cost Romania 
887 million euros in lost productivity. Studies in Bolivia estimate that ethnic 
exclusion reduces agricultural productivity by up to 36 percent.
Most importantly, we find abundant evidence that inclusion can 
be planned and achieved. Education represents an unparalleled agent for 
stimulating inclusion. Religious leaders and other champions of change can 
help excluded groups acquire voice and confidence. The march towards greater 
inclusion, however, is not linear. Expanding the rights of formerly oppressed 
people risks triggering a backlash from historically dominant groups, who see 
their interests threatened. The process of fostering inclusion is incremental. It 
requires time and unwavering commitment. Still, the benefits of persistently 

striving for inclusion are at once striking and numerous. Examples can be 
seen around the world, from the overthrow of apartheid in South Africa, to 
China’s outlawing of foot binding, to the growing support that Brazilian police 
now provide to victims of rape. Exclusion is far from immutable.
Solving the problem of social exclusion is urgent. Tensions are rising 
around the world, due to demographic shifts, migration, food price shocks, 
and economic volatility. People fleeing war and extreme poverty often become 
the most excluded groups in host countries. In the future, moreover, climate 
change will likely result in mass migrations, as cities and countries confront 
extreme drought, storms, heat waves, and sea-level rise. Longstanding prejudices 
may result in excluded groups receiving blame for growing societal tension 
and competition for resources.
To move ahead wisely, we need a clear research agenda. We need better 
tools to measure the costs of exclusion and for diagnosing its root causes. We 
must also develop more sophisticated analyses of which strategies are most 
likely to foster social inclusion, and mechanisms for gauging when inclusion 
efforts are working and when they are not.
We offer this report with the hope that it will stimulate research, action, and 
a broader debate on social inclusion. Increased understanding of this crucial 
topic will strengthen efforts to deliver better results for the world’s poor, and 
help achieve our shared goals of ending extreme poverty and building shared 
prosperity for all people. 
Jim Yong Kim 
President 
The World Bank Group

AFTER YOU READ

3. Answer the questions about the text.
1. How common is social marginalization, according to the author?  
2. Is social exclusion limited to the destitute? 3. Why does the World Bank 
Group take social exclusion so seriously? 4. What goals has the UN set?  
5. In what sense is “including the excluded” “a complex challenge”? 5. Which 
groups of people are typically ostracized both in the developed and developing 
countries? 6. What bare necessities of life are some excluded groups denied?  
7. Can social exclusion be found in prosperous countries? 8. What is the impact 
of social exclusion on the economy? 9. Why is “the march towards greater 

inclusion not linear”? 10. What are the most excluded groups of people?  
11. Why is social exclusion likely to rise? 12. What measures must be taken 
to eliminate social exclusion? 

4. Explain the meaning of the following phrase from the text.
A rising tide does not necessarily lift all boats. 
Note: The phrase is a modification of the famous saying a rising tide lifts 
all boats, which is usually attributed to the US President John F. Kennedy. It 
means that everybody benefits when a country’s economy grows and improves. 
In recent years the phrase has been used in various forms to highlight economic 
inequalities. Cf.:
Gene Sperling, Bill Clinton’s economic advisor: “The rising tide will lift 
some boats, but others will run aground.”
British Labor MP Ed Miliband: “They used to say a rising tide lifted all 
boats. Now the rising tide just seems to lift the yachts.”
New Zealand Labour MP David Parker: “We believe that a rising tide of 
economic growth should lift all boats, not just the super yachts.”

5. Find the following words and phrases in the text and explain their 
meanings.
abundant evidence 
(to) brand by / (to) be branded by
(to) capitalize on 
champions of change
(a) clear research agenda 
(to) confront barriers
(to) deny opportunities 
(to) gauge
immutable 
indigenous
incremental 
longstanding prejudices
(to) make strides 
occupational segregation
(to) ostracize 
preclude
regardless of 
shared prosperity
societal tension 
(to) trigger
unwavering commitment

6. Fill in the gaps with the new words and phrases.
1. Tercek’s interviewing style _____ any long-winded answers. 2. I failed  
to _____ the strength of her dislike. 3. The news of his death _____ more 
violence. 4. Before we embark on this highly complicated project, we 
need to work out a clear _____ _____. 5. He is trying to _____ on popular 

discontent with the government. 6. I don’t want to be _____ as a rebel.  
7. There must be equality of rights for all citizens, _____ of nationality.  
8. The government tried to ease the _____ _____ by altering the draft law on 
retirement age. 9. There is _____ _____ to suggest that these measures are  
counterproductive and exacerbate the already complicated situation. 10. The 
_____ peoples of Siberia mostly rely on hunting as their livelihood. 11. In many 
Muslim countries, women are _____ educational and career _____. 12. _____ 
_____ is the term that has been used to describe the heavy concentrations of 
men and women into different jobs. 13. From the moment they set foot on 
America’s shores, black women have contended with both racism and sexism. 
During their valiant struggles to succeed, they’ve often scaled the walls of 
one, only to _____ _____ caused by the other. 14. One of the most forceful 
_____ of _____ in American history was Martin Luther King, whose goal was 
to grant the Black people of America equal rights and opportunities with the 
white majority. 15. The recent recession has undone many of the last decade’s 
_____ improvements. 16. Lower intelligence and higher pain tolerance are 
some of the _____ _____ associated with the Black people. 17. It’s an _____ fact 
that stability lies at the core of human happiness. 18. Great _____ have been 
made in combating famine in this area. 19. This politician became known for 
his _____ _____ to the ideals of democracy. 20. Globalization hasn’t delivered 
on its promise of seamless mobility and _____ _____. 21. Gypsies have been 
ridiculed, _____, and persecuted for centuries. 

7. Translate the following phrases into English relying on the new vocabulary 
and use them in sentences of your own:
1. коренные народы Северной Америки; 2. независимо от возраста; 
3. лишить возможности получения образования; 4. всеобщее процветание; 5. непоколебимая приверженность идеалам демократии; 6. непреложный факт; 7. сторонники социальных изменений; 8. глубоко укоренившийся предрассудок; 9. оценить эффект; 10. делать большие успехи; 
11. усугублять социальную напряженность; 12. исключить возможность 
поражения; 13. подвергать остракизму этнические меньшинства; 14. профессиональная сегрегация; 15. быть заклейменным как предатель; 16. 
постепенные изменения; 17. четкая программа исследований; 18. столкнуться с препятствиями на пути к успеху; 19. многочисленные свидетельства преступлений; 20. воспользоваться ситуацией. 

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