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Английский язык: теория и практика профессиональной подготовки

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Данное учебно-методическое пособие представляет собой сборник теоретических и практических материалов, которые направлены на формирование у обучающихся базовых компетенций и навыков владения и распознавания англоязычной речи. Это позволит охватить целиком общую картину развития и функционирования английского языка как языка современного международного общения. Учебно-методическое пособие предназначено для обучающихся направления 44.03.01 Педагогическое образование, профиль «Иностранный язык» очной формы обучения.
Английский язык: теория и практика профессиональной подготовки : учебно-методическое пособие / Д. С. Лапенков, О. А. Иванова, И. А. Елисеева, О. Л. Уткина ; науч. ред. С. В. Полулях. - 2-е изд., стер - Москва : ФЛИНТА, 2020. - 117 с. - ISBN 978-5-8424-0920-4. - Текст : электронный. - URL: https://znanium.com/catalog/product/1863370 (дата обращения: 20.05.2024). – Режим доступа: по подписке.
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Д.С. Лапенков 
О.А. Иванова 
И.А. Елисеева 
О.Л. Уткина 

АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК: ТЕОРИЯ И ПРАКТИКА 

ПРОФЕССИОНАЛЬНОЙ ПОДГОТОВКИ 

Учебно-методическое пособие 

Москва 
Издательство «ФДИНТА» 
2020 

2-е издание, стереотипное

УДК 81.111 
ББК 81.432.1 
        Л24 
Научный редактор 

Полулях С.В., учитель английского языка высшей категории, 
заместитель директора по научно-методической работе  
МОУ «СОШ № 4 г. Орска»  

Рецензенты: 

Боброва Н.И., кандидат филологических наук, доцент; 

Тусина Н.В., кандидат филологических наук, доцент  
(кафедра гуманитарных и социально-экономических наук Новотроицкого филиала 
Национального исследовательского технологического  
университета «Московский институт стали и сплавов») 

ISBN 978-5-8424-0920-4. 

Данное 
учебно-методическое 
пособие 
представляет 
собой 
сборник 
теоретических и практических материалов, которые направлены на формирование у 
обучающихся базовых компетенций и навыков владения и распознавания англоязычной 
речи.  Это позволит охватить целиком общую картину развития и функционирования 
английского языка как языка современного международного общения.  
Учебно-методическое 
пособие 
предназначено 
для 
обучающихся 
направления 44.03.01 Педагогическое образование, профиль «Иностранный язык» 
очной формы обучения. 

ISBN 978-5-8424-0920-4               

Л24           

© Лапенков Д.С., Иванова О.А., Елисеева 
И.А., Уткина О.Л., 2020 
© Издательство «ФЛИНТА», 2020 

Лапенков Д.С.

 
Английский язык: теория и практика профессиональной  подготовки 
[Электронный ресурс]: учеб.-метод. пособие / Д.С.  Лапенков, О.А. 
Иванова, И.А. Елисеева, О.Л. Уткина ; науч. ред. С.В. Полулях. – 2-е изд., 
стер. – Москва : ФЛИНТА, 2020. – 117 с.  

УДК 81.111 
ББК 81.432.1

ОГЛАВЛЕНИЕ 

Introduction …………………………………………………………. 5 
1 ENGLISH LEXICOLOGY ……………………………………... 6 

1.1 Fundamentals ………………………………………………. 6 

1.1.1 The Definition of Lexicology ……………………….. 6 
1.1.2 The Connection of Lexicology with Phonetics, 

Stylistics and Grammar ……………………………………………... 7 

1.1.3 The main lexicological problems ……………………. 9 

Exercises ……………………………………………………………. 11 

1.2 The Types of Word-Building ………………………………. 12 

1.2.1 The Principal Types of Word-Building ……………... 12 

A) Affixation ………………………………………….. 13 
B) Conversion ………………………………………… 19 
C) Composition ……………………………………….. 22 
D) Semi-Affixes ………………………………………. 26 

Exercises ..…………………………………………………………... 27 

1.2.2 The Secondary Types of Word-Building …………… 
30 

A) Shortening …………………………………………. 30 
B) Sound-Imitation …………………………………… 31 
C) Reduplication ……………………………………… 31 
D) Reversion (Back-Formation) ……………………… 32 

Exercises ……………………………………………………………. 32 

1.3 The Etymology of English Words …………………………. 33 

1.3.1 Native Words ………………………………………... 34 
1.3.2 Borrowed Words …………………………………….. 36 
1.3.3 Etymological Doublets ………………………………. 40 
1.3.4 Translation-Loans …………………………………… 41 
1.3.5 International Words …………………………………. 41 

Exercises ……………………………………………………………. 42 
Reference Material ………………………………………………….. 44 

Etymological References ……………………………………… 44 
Etymological Doublets ………………………………………... 50 

2 ENGLISH STYLISTICS ……………………………………….. 
51 

2.1 General Notes on Styles and Stylistics …………………….. 51 
2.2 Lexical Expressive Means and Stylistic Devices …………... 55 
2.3 Graphical Expressive Means ……………………….............. 75 
2.4 Phonetic Expressive Means ………………………………... 76 
2.5 Syntactic Expressive Means and Stylistic Devices ………... 80 

2.6 Functional Styles of the English Language ………………... 88 
2.7 The list of topics for individual work ……………………… 93 
2.8 The approximate topics for final research papers ………….. 94 

3 THEORETICAL PHONETICS ………………………………... 96 

3.1 Phonetics as a science ……………………………………… 96 
3.2 The phoneme ………………………………………………. 99 
3.3 The classification of English speech sounds ………………. 101 
3.4 Phonetic Terms …………………………………………….. 104 

The list of sources …………..………………………………………. 113 

INTRODUCTION 

Данное учебно-методическое пособие представляет собой сборник теоретических и практических материалов для обучающихся 
направления 44.03.01 Педагогическое образование, профиля «Иностранный язык» очной формы обучения. Пособие создано с учетом 
требований, предъявляемых учебными программами, и направлено на 
формирование у обучающихся базовых компетенций и навыков владения и распознавания англоязычной речи.  
Пособие состоит из трех частей, каждая из которых охватывает 
одну из теоретических дисциплин, преподаваемых в рамках учебного 
курса указанного направления: лексикология английского языка, стилистика английского языка и теоретическая фонетика английского 
языка. Текст пособия излагается на английском языке, что способствует более глубокому и детальному пониманию слушателями изучаемого материала.  
Каждая из трех частей пособия содержит задания для самостоятельной работы и задания для проверки понимания изученного материала в виде разного рода упражнений по тематике разделов пособия. 
Настоящее пособие является базовым инструментом для дальнейшего 
овладения обучающимися программой обучения, для изучения английского языка не только в практическом, но теоретическом аспекте, что позволяет охватить целиком общую картину развития и функционирования английского языка как языка современного международного общения.  
Знания, почерпнутые обучающимися из данного пособия, могут 
быть применены ими в дальнейшем при изучении курсов практики 
устной и письменной речи, практической грамматики, практической 
фонетики, методики обучения английскому языку. 

1 ENGLISH LEXICOLOGY 

1.1 Fundamentals 

1.1.1 The Definition of Lexicology 

Lexicology (from Greek lexis ‘word’ and logos ‘learning’) is defined 
as ‘a branch of linguistics, is the study of words’1. Lexicology is ‘the part 
of linguistics dealing with vocabulary of a language and the properties of 
words as the main units of language’2. Thus, the subject of Lexicology is 
the science of the word, and the basic task of it is the study and systematic 
description of the vocabulary of some particular language in respect of its 
origin, development and current use. 
General Lexicology deals with the general study of words and vocabulary, irrespective of the specific features of any particular language.  
Special Lexicology devotes its attention to the description of the 
characteristic peculiarities in the vocabulary of a given language. Every 
special Lexicology is based on the principles of general Lexicology.  
The object of Historical Lexicology is the evolution of any vocabulary and its single elements. Historical Lexicology discusses the origin of 
various words, show their change and development in the course of time. 
Descriptive Lexicology deals with the vocabulary of a given language 
at a given stage of its development. It studies the function of words and 
their specific structure. The descriptive Lexicology of the English language deals with the English word in its morphological and semantical 
structures, investigating the interdependence between these two aspects. 
There are two principal approaches to the study of language material 
in linguistic science, namely the descriptive or synchronic and historical or 
diachronic. With regard to Lexicology the synchronic approach is concerned with the vocabulary of a language as it exists at a given (present) 
time. The diachronic approach deals with the changes and the development 
of vocabulary in the course of time. The distinction between this two basi
1 Лексикология английского языка : учеб. для студ пед ин-тов / Г. Б. Антрушина, О. В. Афанасьева, 
Н. Н. Морозова. – М. : Высшая школа, 1985. – С. 5. 
2 Arnold, I. V. The English Word / I. V. Arnold. – М. : Высшая школа, 1973. – С. 9. 

cally different ways in which language may be viewed is a methodological 
one, artificially separating for the purpose of study what in real language is 
inseparable. The distinction between a synchronic and a diachronic approach is due to the Swiss philologist Ferdinand de Saussure (1857-1913). 
The two approaches should not be contrasted, they are interconnected and 
interdependent: the synchronic state of a language system is a result of a 
long process of historical development. 
Language is the reality of thought, and thought develops with the development of society, therefore language and its vocabulary must be studied in the light of social history. A word is a generalized reflection of reality. So, all the changes in social, political or everyday life, production or 
science, manners or culture find a reflection in vocabulary. These extralinguistic forces influencing the development of words are considered in Historical Lexicology. 
The branch of linguistics, dealing with casual relations between the 
way the language works and develops, on the one hand, and the facts of 
social life, on the other is termed sociolinguistics. It analyses both microsociological (speech behavior in small social groups) and macrosociological factors (the effect of mass media, the system of education, etc.). 
 
1.1.2 The Connection of Lexicology with Phonetics,  
Stylistics and Grammar 
 
The word is studied in several branches of linguistics. It is explained 
by the fact that a word has many different aspects. It has a sound form because it is a certain arrangement of phonemes; it has a morphological 
structure, as it is also a certain arrangement of morphemes; in actual 
speech it may occur in different word-forms and signal various meanings. 
A word is a central element of any language system and is studied by Phonology, Lexicology, Morphology and by many other sciences. That is why 
Lexicology is closely connected with General Linguistics, the History of 
the language, Phonetics, Stylistics and, especially, Grammar. 
The connection of Lexicology with Phonetics is very important. 
Phonetics investigates the phonetic structure of language, i. e. its system of 

phonemes and intonation patterns, studies the outer sound-form of the 
word. 
On the acoustic level words consist of phonemes which have no 
meaning of their own. Nevertheless, the function of phonemes is building 
up morphemes, they serve to distinguish between meanings.  
Phonemes follow each other in a fixed sequence forming a wordunity so that [sit] is different from [tis]. The distinction between words 
may be based on stress, so the word ΄record is a noun and re΄cord is a 
verb.  
Stylistics studies the problems of meaning, synonymy, differentiation 
of vocabulary according to the sphere of communication. 
A connection between lexicology and Grammar is very close. Even 
isolated words as presented in a dictionary bear a definite relation to the 
grammatical system of the language because they belong to some part of 
speech and conform to some lexico-grammatical characteristic of the word 
class to which they belong.  
Professor I. V. Arnold indicated some points of interests in the interdependence of lexical and grammatical meaning:  
1. Certain grammatical functions and meanings are possible only for 
the words whose lexical meaning makes them fit for these functions. For 
example, some verbs of motion are used in the function of a link verb with 
a predicative expressed by an adjective: come true, go wrong, turn pale, 
run mad. 
2. On the other hand the grammatical form and function of the word 
affect its lexical meaning. For example, the verb go followed by to and an 
infinitive (except go and come) in the continuous tenses serves to express 
an action in the near future, or an intention of future action. 
3. Two grammatically equivalent forms of the same word may survive when they help to distinguish between its lexical meanings. Some 
English nouns, for instance, have two separate plurals, one keeping the etymological plural form, and the other with the usual English ending -s. For 
example, the form brothers is used to express the family relationship, 
whereas the old form brethren (собратья, братия) survives in ecclesiastical usage or to indicate the members of some society. The same is with the 

nouns cows and kine: the form cows is used to express ‘fully grown female 
of any animal of the ox family, especially the domestic kind kept by farmers for producing milk’3 and kine (коровы) is archaic form which also survives in church usage. 
4. A form that originally expressed grammatical meaning, for instance, the plural of nouns, may become a basis for a new grammatically 
conditioned lexical meaning. The grammatical form may be lexicalized, so 
that a new word comes into being. For example, arms, the plural of the 
noun arm (оружие), means ‘weapon’; due to the development a new 
grammatically conditioned meaning appears, namely, with the verb in the 
singular arms (род войск) metonymically denotes the military profession. 
The abstract noun authority (власть) becomes a collective on the form authorities (власти) and denotes a group of persons having the right to control and govern. The best known examples of this lexicalization of a 
grammatical form where the suffix -s signals a new word with a new 
meaning are colours (цветной предмет одежды, форменная одежда), 
customs (налог, таможня), looks, manners, pictures, works. 
5. One and the same word in some of its meanings function as a notional word, while in others it may be a form-word, i. e. it may serve to indicate the relationships and functions of other words. For example, the notional and the auxiliary verb do.  
The ties between lexicology and grammar are particularly strong in 
the sphere of word-formation which before lexicology became a separate 
branch of linguistics had even been considered as part of grammar. The 
characteristic features of English word-building, the morphological structure of the English word are largely dependent upon the peculiarity of the 
English grammar system. 

1.1.3 The main lexicological problems 

One of the most difficult problems in linguistics is the definition of a 
word. The word has been defined syntactically (H. Sweet, L. Bloomfield), 

3 Хорнби, А. Толковый словарь английского языка / А. Хорнби, Э. Гейтенби, Х. Хэйкфилд. – М. : Изд-во «Сигма-пресс», 1996. – C. 224. 

semantically (E. Sapir, S. Ullmann), phonologically and by combining various approaches (A. Meillet). But non of the definitions can be considered 
totally satisfactory as they don’t reveal the essential nature of the word.  
I. Arnold summarized the main points of the problem and gave the 
following definition: ‘The word is one of the fundamental units of language. It is a dialectical unity of form and content’4.  
R. S. Ginsburg gave a similar definition: ‘The word is the principal 
and basic unit of the language system, the largest on the morphologic and 
the smallest on the syntactic plane of linguistic analysis. The word is a 
structural and semantic entity within the language system’5.  
G. Antrushina used a more concrete and extended definition: ‘The 
word is a speech unit used for the purposes of human communication, materially representing a group of sounds, possessing a meaning, susceptible 
to grammatical employment and characterized by formal and semantic unity’6.  
Structurally the word possesses several characteristics. The modern 
approach to word is based on distinguishing between the external (form) 
and the internal (meaning) structures of the word.  
By external structure of the word we mean its morphological structure. For example, in the word post-impressionists the following morphemes can be distinguished: the prefixes post-, im-, the root press, the 
noun-forming suffixes   -ion, -ist, and the grammatical suffix of plurality s. All these morphemes constitute the external structure of the word postimpressionists. 
The external structure of words, and also typical word-formation patterns, are studied in the section of word-building. 
The internal structure of the word is nowadays commonly referred to 
as the word’s semantic structure. This is certainly the word’s main aspect. 

 

4 Arnold, I. V. The English Word / I. V. Arnold. – М. : Высшая школа, 1973. – С. 27. 
5 A course in modern English lexicology / R. S. Ginsburg, S. S Khidekel. – M. : Higher School Publishing House, 1966. 
– P. 6. 
6 Лексикология английского языка : учеб. для студ пед ин-тов / Г. Б. Антрушина, О. В. Афанасьева,  
Н. Н. Морозова. – М. : Высшая школа, 1985. – С. 5. 

Words can serve the purposes of human communication solely due to their 
meanings∗. 
Another structural aspect of the word is its unity. The word possesses 
both external (formal) unity and semantic unity.  
The formal unity of the word can be illustrated by comparing a word 
a black bird (дрозд) and a word-group a black bird. The word blackbird 
possesses a single grammatical framing: blackbird|s. Each constituent of 
the word-group a black bird can acquire its own grammatical forms: the 
blackest bird I’ve ever seen. Other word can be inserted between the components of the word-group: a black night bird. As far as the word is concerned it is impossible to interpolate any other element without the violation of the meaning. 
The semantic unity of the word can be explained by the same example. The word blackbird convey only one concept: the type of bird. This is 
one of the main features of any word: it always conveys one concept, no 
matter how many component morphemes it may have in its external structure. 
In the word-group a black bird each of the meaningful words conveys a separate concept: bird – a kind of living creature; black – a colour.  
A further structural feature of the word is its susceptibility to grammatical employment. In speech most words can be used in different grammatical forms in which their interrelations are realized. 
Only some major peculiarities of the word were underlined here, but 
this suffices to convey the general idea of the difficulties and questions 
faced by the scholars attempting to give a detailed definition of the word. 
The difficulty does not merely consist in the considerable number of aspects that are to be taken into account, but, also, in the essential unanswered questions of word theory which concern the nature of its meaning. 
 
EXERCISES 
 
I. Consider your answer to the following. 
1. Give the definition of Lexicology. 

 

∗ The branch of lexicology that is devoted to the study of meaning is called Semasiology or semantics. 

2. Explain the connection of Lexicology with other branches of Linguistics (Phonetics, Stylistics, Grammar). 
3. What is the main problems of Lexicology? 
4. What are structural aspects of the word? 
II. What is the external structure of the word unbelievable? What 
is the internal structure of this word? 
III. Explain why the word a greenhouse can be considered a unity and why the combination of words a green house does not possess 
such unity? 
 
 
1.2 The Types of Word-Building 
 
1.2.1 The Principal Types of Word-Building 
 
By word-building are understood processes of producing new words 
from the resources of this particular language. Together with borrowings, 
word-building provides for enlarging and enriching the vocabulary of the 
language.  
Before turning to the processes of making words, it is necessary to 
say about the word composition, i. e. of their constituent parts. 
Structurally words appear to be divisible into smaller units which are 
called morphemes. Morphemes do not occur as free forms but only as constituents of words. Yet they possess meanings of their own. 

All morphemes are subdivided into two large classes: roots (or radicals) and affixes. Affixes in their turn fall into prefixes which precede the 
root in the structure of the word (as in re-tell, mis-understand, un-well) and 
suffixes which follow the root (as in teach-er, dict-ate, cur-able).  

Words which have only a root morpheme in their structure are the socalled root-words. Words which consist of a root and an affix or several 
affixes are called derived words or derivatives and are produced by the 
process of word-building known as affixation. 
Derived words are extremely numerous in the English vocabulary. 
This type is widely represented by a great number of words belonging to 

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