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A PHONETIC GUIDE TO COMMUNICATION IN ENGLISH

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Вертоградова, Л. А. A PHONETIC GUIDE TO COMMUNICATION IN ENGLISH: Учебное пособие / Вертоградова Л.А., Рубанова О.А. - Ростов-на-Дону:Издательство ЮФУ, 2016. - 122 с.: ISBN 978-5-9275-2002-2. - Текст : электронный. - URL: https://znanium.com/catalog/product/990029 (дата обращения: 18.04.2024). – Режим доступа: по подписке.
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МИНИСТЕРСТВО ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ И НАУКИ 
РОССИЙСКОЙ ФЕДЕРАЦИИ 
Федеральное государственное  автономное образовательное  
учреждение высшего образования 
 «ЮЖНЫЙ ФЕДЕРАЛЬНЫЙ УНИВЕРСИТЕТ» 

 
 
 
 
 
 
Л. А. Вертоградова 
О. А. Рубанова 
 
 
A PHONETIC GUIDE TO 
COMMUNICATION IN ENGLISH  
 
 
УЧЕБНОЕ ПОСОБИЕ 
по практической фонетике 
английского языка 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Ростов-на-Дону 
Издательство Южного федерального университета 
2016 

УДК 811.11: 81’34  
ББК 81.2:81.01 
      В35 
 
Рецензенты: 
Барабанова И.Г., кандидат филологических наук, доцент кафедры 
лингвистики и межкультурной коммуникации РГЭУ (РИНХ); 
 
Склярова Н.Г., доктор филологических наук, профессор 
кафедры теории и практики английского языка ЮФУ 
 
Авторы: 
Вертоградова Л.А., кандидат филологических наук, доцент 
              Рубанова О.А., кандидат филологических наук, доцент 
 
Ответственный редактор: 
Рубанова О.А., кандидат филологических наук, доцент 
 
 
 
В35            A Phonetic Guide to Communication in English: учебное пособие 
по практической фонетике английского языка для  студентов, 
обучающихся по направлению 45.03.02 Лингвистика;  Южный 
федеральный университет. –  Ростов-на-Дону: Издательство 
Южного федерального университета, 2015. –  122 c. 
ISBN 978-5-9275-2002-2 
 
 
            Учебное 
пособие 
предлагает 
студентам 
теоретический 
и 
практический учебный материал по фонетике английского языка.  Пособие 
имеет модульную структуру и снабжено вопросами для самопроверки, 
аудиотекстами, 
 
практическими 
заданиями 
для 
аудиторной 
и 
внеаудиторной работы. 
 
 
 

            ISBN 978-5-9275-2002-2                                                УДК 811.11: 81’34  
ББК 81.2:81.01 

                                               
© Вертоградова Л.А., Рубанова О.А., 2016 
© Южный федеральный университет, 2016 
 

CONTENTS

CHAPTER 1. SPEECH SOUNDS

1. Phonetics as a branch of linguistics. Notion of a Phoneme and a 

Sound………………………………………………………………...

2. Classification of English Vowel Phonemes (monophthongs, 

diphthongs)…………………………………………………………..

3. Classification of English Consonant Phonemes ……………….. …..

CHAPTER 2. WORD STRESS. SYLLABLE STRUCTURE

1. Word Stress in English ………………………………………………
2. Syllable Formation. Syllable Division.……………………………...

CHAPTER 3. INTONATION. INTONATION PATTERN

1. Sentence Stress. Functional Types of Sentence Stress.

Function of Pauses…………………………………………………..

2.  Rhythm……………………………………………………………...
3.  Intonation Pattern. Its Components………………………………….

CHAPTER 4. THE COMMUNICATIVE FUNCTIONS OF ENGLISH 

NUCLEAR TONES

1. Intonation of Statements……………………………………………..
2. Intonation of General Questions …………………………………….
3. Intonation of Special Questions …………………………………….
4. Intonation of Commands…………………………………………….
5. Intonation of Exclamations ………………………………………….

CHAPTER 5. EMPHATIC INTONATION

1. Intensity Emphasis. Contrast Emphasis………………………. …….
2. The role of intonation in conveying new and old information in 

discourse …………………………………………………………….

CHAPTER 6. INTONATION. PARENTHESES. DIRECT ADDRESS. 
ALTERNATIVE AND DISJUNCTIVE QUESTIONS

1. Intonation of Parenthesis….…………………………………………
2. Intonation of Direct Address…………………………...…………….

3. Intonation of Alternative Questions……………...…………………..
4. Intonation of Disjunctive Questions………………...……………….

CHAPTER 7. INTONATIONAL STYLES

1. General Characteristics. Formal Style……………………………….
2. Academic Style…………………………………………………........
3. Declamatory Style………………………………………………........
4. Publicistic Style………………………………………………….......
5. Familiar Style. Modification of Sounds in Familiar Style…………...
6. Modification of Sounds in Connected Speech…………………… …

SUPPLEMENT 1. AUDIO MATERIAL…………………………………. …..

SUPPLEMENT 2. MATERIAL FOR THE PHONETIC ANALYSIS……….

GLOSSARY………………………………………………………………………

REFERENCE LITERATURE ………………………………………………….

Предисловие

Учебное пособие по практической фонетике английского языка 

предназначено для студентов 2 курса, обучающихся по программам 

бакалавриата 
направления 
45.03.02 
Лингвистика,
и 
может 
быть 

использовано в очной, заочной и дистанционной формах обучения.

Основная цель пособия –
предоставить студенту необходимый 

комплект 
учебно-методических 
материалов 
для 
аудиторной 
и 

самостоятельной работы в процессе формирования базовых теоретических 

и практических навыков в овладении правильным произношением и 

интонацией, систематизировать представления о значении звуковой 

стороны языка как средства общения и его роль в различных видах 

дискурса. Конечный результат изучения фонетики определяется по 

способности 
продуцировать 
фонетически 
корректные 
английские 

высказывания и быть понятым, т.е. в конечном итоге фонетика должна 

помогать успешному осуществлению речевого акта. 

Пособие построено на основе модульного подхода и соответствует 

современным требованиям, предъявляемым к пособиям данного типа. 

Содержание учебного  пособия разбито на семь тематических глав, 

структура которых представлена программным теоретическим материалом 

по дисциплине «Практическая фонетика»; вопросами для самоконтроля;  

тренировочными упражнениями и  практическими заданиями. В пособии 

предусмотрены  два приложения и компакт-диск: 

1)  приложение, содержащее аудиоматериал, где представлены стихи 

английских и американских поэтов, а также аутентичные тексты 

монологического и диалогического характера; 

2) приложение, содержащее тексты аутентичного аудиоматериала для 

фоностилистического анализа;

3) компакт-диск с заданиями и аудиоматериалом для выполнения 

практических заданий. Таким образом, в пособии используются наиболее 

важные современные подходы к преподаванию фонетических дисциплин, 

способствующих достижению поставленных целей.

CHAPTER 1. SPEECH SOUNDS

Phonetics as a Branch of Linguistics. The notion of a Phoneme and a Sound

The word phonetics is derived from the Greek word fo:ne: meaning 

sound. Phonetics is a branch of linguistics concerned with the study of the 

system of speech sounds and intonational means of a given language.

A phoneme is an abstract notion of an ideal sound which exists in the 

speech of all people belonging to the same language community and may bring 

about a change of meaning.

The phoneme is a functional unit. This means that being opposed to other 

phonemes in the same phonetic context it is capable of differentiating the 

meaning, eg: Are you fond of this cut? or Are you fond of this cart?

Speech sounds are realizations of phonemes. The organs of speech are 

capable of uttering many different kinds of sounds. From the practical point of 

view it is convenient to distinguish two types of speech sounds: vowels and 

consonants.

(Аракин, 2014, с.5-8; Соколова. 2003, с.39-41).

Questions:

1. Give the definition of the term ―phonetics‖.

2. What is a phoneme?

3. What is the difference between a phoneme and a speech sound?

Classification of English Vowel Phonemes

Speech sounds are divided into vowels and consonants. A vowel is a 

voiced sound produced in the mouth with no obstruction to the air stream. There 

are 20 vowel phonemes in English.

The English vowel phonemes are divided first of all into two large groups: 

monophthongs and diphthongs. This division is based on the stability of 

articulation.

A monophthong is a pure (unchanging) vowel sound. In its pronunciation 

the organs of speech do not perceptibly change their position throughout the 

duration of the vowel. There are 12 monophthongs in English.

A diphthong is a complex sound consisting of two vowel elements 

pronounced so as to form a single syllable. In the pronunciation of a diphthong 

the organs of speech start in the position of one vowel and glide gradually in the 

direction of another vowel, whose full formation is not generally accomplished. 

The first element of an English diphthong is called the nucleus. It is strong, clear 

and distinct. The second element is rather weak; it is called the glide. There are 

eight diphthongs in English: three with a glide towards [ɪ]- ([ɔɪ], [eɪ], [aɪ]), two 

with a glide towards [ʋ] - ([aʋ], [ǝʋ]) and three with a glide towards [ǝ] 
[ʋǝ],[ɛǝ], [ɪǝ]).

English monophthongs may be classified according to the following 

principles:

according to the tongue position;

according to the lip position;

according to the length of the vowel;

according to the degree of tenseness;

according to the character of their end.

1. a) according to the horizontal movement of the tongue English vowels are 

divided into:

- front vowels: [i: ], [e], [æ]; and the nuclei of the diphthongs [ɛǝ ], [eɪ].

front-retracted vowels: [ɪ ]; and the nuclei of the diphthongs [ɪǝ], [aɪ], [aʋ]. 

central (mixed) vowels: [ʌ], [ɜ:], [ǝ]; and the nucleus of the diphthong [ǝʋ].

back vowels: [ɒ], [ɔ:], [u:]; and the nucleus of [ɔɪ].

back advanced vowels: [ɑ:], [ʋ]; and the nucleus of the diphthong [ʋǝ].

b) according to the vertical movement of the tongue vowels are divided into:

- high vowels: [i:], [ɪ], [u:], [ʋ];  and the nuclei of the diphthongs  [ɪǝ], [ʋǝ].

mid vowels: [e],[ɜ:], [ǝ], [ɔ:]; and the nuclei of the diphthongs [ɛǝ], [ǝʋ], [eɪ].

low vowels: [æ], [ɒ], [ɑ:],[ʌ]; and the nuclei of the diphthongs [ɔɪ], [aɪ], 

[aʋ].

2. According to their length vowels may be long and short:

long vowels: [i:], [ɜ:], [ɔ:], [u:], [ɑ:];

short vowels: [ɪ], [e], [æ], [ʌ], [ɒ], [ǝ], [ʋ].

Short vowels are checked under stress:

3. According to the position of the lips vowels may be:

rounded (more or less): [ʋ], [u:] , [ɒ], [ɔ:]; and the nuclei of the diphthongs

[ʋǝ], [ɔɪ].

unrounded (the lips are spread or neutral): [ɪ ],[i:] ,[e], [ǝ], [æ], [ɜ:], [ʌ], [ɑ:

];   and the nuclei of all the other diphthongs.

4. According to the degree of tenseness vowels are divided into tense and lax. 

All the English long vowels are tense, all the English short vowels are lax.

5. According to the character of their end the English vowels may be checked

and free. 

Checked vowels are those which are pronounced without any lessening the 

force of utterance towards their end. They have a strong end. They end abruptly 

and are interrupted by the consonant immediately following. Stressed short 

monophthongs are always checked as well  as long monophthongs and 

diphthongs before a voiceless consonant in stressed position. 

Free vowels are those which are pronounced with lessening the force of 

utterance towards their end. They have a week end. The rest vowels are free.

(Соколова, 2001, с. 85-122; O‘Connor, 1988, c. 125-175).

Questions and Tasks:

1. Give the definition of a vowel. What two groups are English vowels divided 

into? What is this division based on?

2. Give the definition of a monophthong and a diphthong.

3. According to what principles may English diphthongs be classified?

4. According to what principles may English monophthongs be classified?

5. Classify English vowels according to the tongue position.

6. Classify English vowels according to the lip position and the length of the 

vowel.

7. Classify English vowels according to the degree of tenseness and the 

character of their end. Explain the difference between checked and free 

vowels.

8. Give the definition of the English vowels [i:], [ɪ ], [e], [æ ], [ɑ:], [ɒ], [ʋ], [u:],

[ʌ], [ɜ:], [ǝ].

9. Give examples of checked and free vowels in English. Compare them with 

Russian vowels.

10.Identify all rounded, tense and checked vowels in the following sentences:

Peter Piper picked a peck of pickled pepper.

Grasp all, lose all.

The night is white, the moon is high.

Classification of English Consonant Phonemes

A consonant is a sound produced with an obstruction to the air stream in 

the mouth or nasal cavity. In the production of consonants there is a certain 

degree of noise. English consonants may be classified according to the following 

principles:

1. According to the degree of noise.

2. According to the work of the vocal cords and the force of articulation.

3. According to the manner of articulation.

4. According to the place of articulation.

5. According to the position of the soft palate.

1. According to the degree of noise English consonants are divided into 

two big classes: noise consonants and sonorants. In the production of noise

consonants noise prevails over tone. Sonorants or sonorous consonants are 

produced when tone prevails over noise because of a relatively wide air passage. 

There are 7 sonorous consonants in English: m , n , ŋ , l , r , w, j.

2. According to the work of the vocal cords noise consonants may be 

voiced and voiceless ( unvoiced ). The English voiced consonants are: / b,  d,  g,  

v,  z, ð , ʒ , ʤ /. If  the vocal cords do not vibrate voiceless consonants are 

produced. The English voiceless consonants are / p, t , k , f , s , h , Ɵ , ʃ , ʧ /. 

According to the force of articulation noise consonants may be strong 

and weak. Strong noise consonants are produced with more muscular energy and 

stronger breath effort. Weak noise consonants are pronounced with a weak 

breath effort. All English voiceless consonants are strong and all English voiced 

consonants are weak. Sonorants are not differentiated according to this principle.

3. According to the manner of articulation consonants may be classified 

into 4 groups:

1. Occlusive

2. Constrictive

3. Occlusive-constrictive ( affricates)

4. Rolled

The manner of articulation is determined by the type of obstruction. The 

obstruction may be complete, incomplete and momentary.

Occlusive consonants are sounds in the production of which the air stream 

meets a complete obstruction in the mouth. Occlusive noise consonants are 

called stops because the breath is completely stopped at some point of 

articulation and then released with a slight explosion, that is why they are also 

called plosives.

There are 6 plosives in English: p , t , k , b , d , g . The English occlusive 

sonorants are: m , n , ŋ .

Constrictive consonants are sounds in the production of which the air 

stream meets an incomplete obstruction. Both noise consonants and sonorants 

may be constrictive. Constrictive consonants are also called fricatives as the air 

escapes through the narrowing with friction. 

The English fricatives are: f , v , s , z , Ɵ , ð ,  ʃ , ʒ , h. 

Fricative noise consonants may be voiced and voiceless. 

The English constrictive sonorants are: w , r , l , j .

Occlusive-constrictive consonants or affricates are noise consonant sounds 

produced with a complete obstruction which is slowly released and the air 

escapes from the mouth with some friction. There are only two affricates in 

English: ʧ, ʤ.

Rolled consonants are produced when the tip of the tongue taps quickly 

several times against the teeth bridge and the vocal cords vibrate in the air 

stream. There are no rolled consonants in English. They are the Russian / р, р' /.

4. According to the place of articulation.

The place of articulation is determined by the active organ of speech and 

the place of obstruction. According to the position of the active organs of 

speech English consonants may be:

Labial

Lingual

Glottal

Labial consonants are made by the lips. They may be  bilabial / p , b , m , w / 

and  labio-dental /f , v /.

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