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Иностранный язык (английский). Political and social matters

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Учебно-методическое пособие «Political and social matters» предназначено для студентов 4-го курса специальности «Регионоведение. Восточное направление». Данное пособие состоит из 4 блоков, включающих в себя тексты с разработанными к ним заданиями, целью которых является расширение лексического запаса, совершенствование языковых навыков чтения и говорения, а также навыков реферирования. Данное пособие ставит своей целью развитие у студентов способности свободно высказываться на актуальные политические и социальные темы. Последовательность тем, представленных в пособии, соответствует учебной программе данной специальности.
Жумабекова, Г. Ж. Иностранный язык (английский). Political and social matters/ЖумабековаГ.Ж., ФилатоваЕ.В. - Новосибирск : НГТУ, 2010. - 96 с.: ISBN 978-5-7782-1450-7. - Текст : электронный. - URL: https://znanium.com/catalog/product/548143 (дата обращения: 18.07.2024). – Режим доступа: по подписке.
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Министерство образования и науки Российской Федерации

НОВОСИБИРСКИЙ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННЫЙ ТЕХНИЧЕСКИЙ УНИВЕРСИТЕТ

ИНОСТРАННЫЙ ЯЗЫК

(АНГЛИЙСКИЙ)

POLITICAL AND SOCIAL

MATTERS

Учебно-методическое пособие для студентов 4-го курса

специальности «Регионоведение. Восточное направление»

НОВОСИБИРСК

2010

ББК 81.432.1-923

И 683

Составители:

Г.Ж. Жумабекова, ст. преп., Е.В. Филатова, ст. преп. 

Рецензенты:

Н.М. Гришина, канд. филол. наук, профессор,

В.Г. Шабаев, канд. филол. наук, доцент каф. ин. яз. ГФ НГТУ 

И 693
Иностранный язык (английский) : Political and social mat
ters : учеб.-метод. пособие / авт.-составители Г.Ж. Жумабекова, 
Е.В. Филатова. – Новосибирск : Изд-во НГТУ. – 96 с.

ISBN 978-5-7782-1450-7

Учебно-методическое пособие «Political and social matters» пред
назначено для студентов 4-го курса специальности «Регионоведение. Восточное направление». Данное пособие состоит из 4 блоков, включающих в 
себя тексты с разработанными к ним заданиями, целью которых является 
расширение лексического запаса, совершенствование языковых навыков 
чтения и говорения, а также навыков реферирования. Данное пособие ставит своей целью развитие у студентов способности свободно высказываться на актуальные политические и социальные темы. Последовательность 
тем, представленных в пособии, соответствует учебной программе данной 
специальности.

Работа выполнена на кафедре иностранных языков ГФ НГТУ

и утверждена  Редакционно-издательским советом университета

в качестве учебно-методического пособия

Блок I “Sport. Olympic Games” разработан Е.В. Филатовой
Блок II
“International Relations. Interstate system” разработан Г.Ж. Жу
мабековой

Блок III “Religion” разработан Е.В. Филатовой
Блок IV “Social issues” разработан Е.В. Филатовой (“Human rights”,

“Discrimination”), Г.Ж. Жумабековой (“Petty crime”, “Vandalism”,
“Community care for the elderly”) 

ББК 81.432.1-923

ISBN 978-5-7782-1450-7
© Новосибирский государственный 

технический университет, 2010

CONTENTS

ПРЕДИСЛОВИЕ ..........................................................................................5

UNIT I. SPORT. OLYMPIC GAMES ..........................................................6

The importance of sport .............................................................................7

The birth of the Olympic Games................................................................8

The International Olympic Committee ......................................................9

Ceremonies...............................................................................................12

Political turmoil........................................................................................14

Recent developments ...............................................................................16

UNIT II. INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS...............................................33

Introduction..............................................................................................33

History......................................................................................................34

Actors in international relations...............................................................35

Concepts in international relations...........................................................37

Membership in the interstate system........................................................41

Structure of relationships .........................................................................41

Future of the interstate system .................................................................42

The Bush doctrine ....................................................................................42

UNIT III. RELIGION ..................................................................................46

Introduction..............................................................................................46

The world‟s principal religions ................................................................47

UNIT IV. SOCIAL ISSUES ........................................................................55

Human rights............................................................................................55

Discrimination..........................................................................................61

Petty crime ...............................................................................................80

Vandalism ................................................................................................83

Community care for the elderly ...............................................................87

References....................................................................................................94

ПРЕДИСЛОВИЕ

Предлагаемое учебно-методическое пособие предназначено для 

студентов 4-го курса специальности «Регионоведение. Восточное направление» по дисциплине «Английский язык (Politics)».

Целью пособия является отработка навыков устной и письменной 

речи, расширение лексического запаса, совершенствование языковых 
навыков чтения, а также навыков реферирования. Пособие помогает 
студентам совершенствовать навыки перевода. Создавая это пособие, 
авторы преследовали цель развивать у студентов способность свободно высказываться на актуальные политические и социальные темы.

Учебный материал состоит из четырѐх блоков по следующим те
мам:

I. Sport. Olympic Games
II. International Relations. 
III. Religion 
IV. Social Issues 

Все блоки выстроены по единой схеме: каждый раздел предваряет
ся заданиями Warm-up и Pre-reading task с целью активизации лексического запаса студентов по данной теме и развития навыков говорения. 
Далее следует базовый текст с комплексом разработанных лексикограмматических упражнений и заданий (After-reading tasks). В некоторых блоках даются дополнительные тексты, которые преподаватель 
может использовать в учебном процессе по своему усмотрению как 
источник дополнительной информации. В блоках Sport. Olympic Games
и Religion на завершающем этапе предлагается ролевая игра, позволяющая активировать лингвокультурологический материал тематических разделов. В пособии в большом объеме использованы аутентичные 
тексты официальных сайтов Евросоюза, ООН и МОК.

UNIT I. SPORT. OLYMPIC GAMES

Warm-up

Think about and discuss good and bad points of each sport: basket
ball, boxing, cycling, hockey, fencing, figure skating, football, gymnastics, 
target shooting, sailing, skiing, swimming, tennis, track and field, weightlifting, wrestling etc.

For example:

Tennis is a very challenging sport and training is very tiring. Tennis 

players travel a lot, can meet very interesting people and earn a lot of money 
but they don‟t have enough time to live a normal life.

Boxing is an exciting, fast-moving sport but training is very hard and 

tough. Boxers can get seriously injured. One may be permanently braindamaged.

Motor racing teaches one how to cooperate with a pit crew as well as 

providing spectators with a thrilling event to watch. But on the other hand, 
many drivers are seriously injured on the track.

Basketball/ volleyball etc. By taking part in a team sport you will 

learn how to work as a part of a team. Team sports require team spirit as 
you have to cooperate with others. In addition, exercise improves health, 
reduces your chances of getting ill, makes you feel alive and alert and also 
helps you to lose weight. 

Work in groups. Look at the sports in task 1 and discuss the follow
ing questions:

1. Which sports are the most popular in your country?
2. Which sports is your country best at?
3. Which sports are the most enjoyable to do? Why?
4. Which sports are the most interesting to watch? Why?

The importance of sport

Pre-reading task

1. What role does sport play in society?
2. What are its main functions? Touch upon historical, religious, social, 

educational, economic, political and personal aspects of sport. 

Read the text. Do you agree with the author’s arguments for and 

against sport? Use examples to illustrate your point of view.

Sport is an important part of today‟s society and plays a large role in 

many people‟s lives. Now more than ever, sport events dominate headlines 
and athletes have become national heroes. The question is, does sport merit 
this kind of interest and attention?

From a social standpoint, sport plays a positive role in uniting people 

from different social backgrounds in support of their favourite team. This 
can aid people‟s understanding and tolerance of each other. However, just 
as sport unites people so it can divide them, as is often demonstrated by 
crowd violence at football matches.

As far as education is concerned, sport is an important part of every 

child‟s schooling, as it plays a big role in both their physical and mental development. It teaches children how to work as part of a team and cooperate 
with others, while at the same time improving physical condition. The only 
drawback to this is that children who are less able to perform well in sport 
are likely to feel inadequate in comparison to their more gifted classmates, 
which may affect their self-confidence.

From an economic point of view, sport can be very profitable, as it at
tracts a lot of sponsorship and advertising. On the one hand, this creates 
revenue for the sporting industry which allows for improvement and expansion. On the other hand, large sums of money are often paid to event organizers to promote products such as cigarettes, which are harmful to one‟s 
health.
After-reading task

1. In pairs, think of any other aspects about sport. 
2. Conclude by giving your own opinion on the subject.

Pre-reading task

Work with a partner and discuss what you know about the origin of the 

Olympic Games.

Read the text and compare your ideas with the ideas in the text. 

Then answer the questions.

The birth of the Olympic Games

The Olympic Games, an international sports competition, are held once 

every four years at a different site, where athletes from different nations 
compete against each other in a wide variety of sports. There are two classifications of Olympics, the Summer Olympics and the Winter Olympics. 
Through 1992 they were held in the same year, but beginning in 1994 they 
were rescheduled so that they are held in alternate even-numbered years. 

According to historical records, the first ancient Olympic Games can be 

traced back to 776 BC. They were dedicated to the Olympian gods and were 
staged on the ancient plains of Olympia. They continued for nearly 12 centuries, until Emperor Theodosius decreed in 393 A.D. that all such "pagan 
cults" be banned.

Olympia, the site of the ancient Olympic Games, is in the western part of 

the Peloponnese which, according to Greek mythology, is the island of "Pelops", the founder of the Olympic Games. Imposing temples, votive buildings, 
elaborate shrines and ancient sporting facilities were combined in a site of 
unique natural and mystical beauty. Olympia functioned as a meeting place 
for worship and other religious and political practices as early as the 
10th century B.C. The central part of Olympia was dominated by the majestic temple of Zeus, with the temple of Hera parallel to it. 

The Olympic Games were closely linked to the religious festivals of the 

cult of Zeus, but were not an integral part of a rite. Indeed, they had a secular character and aimed to show the physical qualities and evolution of the 
performances accomplished by young people, as well as encouraging good 
relations between the cities of Greece. According to specialists, the Olympic 
Games owed their purity and importance to religion.

The Olympic victor received his first awards immediately after the 

competition. Following the announcement of the winner's name by the herald, a Hellanodikis (Greek judge) would place a palm branch in his hands, 
while the spectators cheered and threw flowers to him. Red ribbons were 
tied on his head and hands as a mark of victory. 

The official award ceremony would take place on the last day of the 

Games, at the elevated vestibule of the temple of Zeus. In a loud voice, the 
herald would announce the name of the Olympic winner, his father's name, 
and his homeland. Then, the Hellanodikis placed the sacred olive tree 
wreath, or kotinos, on the winner's head.
Answer the following questions:

1. When and where were the first ancient Olympic Games held?
2. What role did religion play in developing the Olympic movement? 

Were the Olympic Games a secular or a pure religious event? 

3. How was an awards ceremony organized? Which awards were the

Olympic victors presented with?

Pre-reading task

Work in small groups and answer the following questions:
1. Do you know the name of the body the Olympic Games are adminis
tered by? When was it established? Where is it located?

2. What do Demetrius Vikélas, Pierre de Coubertin, Juan Antonio Sa
maranch and Jacques Rogge have in common?

Read the text and compare your answers with the information given 

by the author. Then answer the questions below the text.

The International Olympic Committee

The Olympic Games are administered by the International Olympic 

Committee (IOC), which is headquartered in Lausanne, Switzerland. IOC 
was created in Paris in 1894 as an independent committee selecting its own
members but to begin the process, however, Coubertin himself chose the
first 15 members. The International Olympic Committee is the supreme authority of the Olympic Movement.

Acting as a catalyst for collaboration between all parties of the Olympic 

family, from the National Olympic Committees (NOCs), the International 
Sports Federations (IFs), the athletes, the Organizing Committees for the 
Olympic Games (OCOGs), to the TOP partners, broadcast partners and 
United Nations agencies, the International Olympic Committee (IOC) 
shepherds success through a wide range of programmes and projects. On 

this basis it ensures the regular celebration of the Olympic Games, supports 
all affiliated member organizations of the Olympic Movement and strongly 
encourages, by appropriate means, the promotion of the Olympic values.

In detail the role of the IOC, according to the Olympic Charter, is:

To encourage and support the promotion of ethics in sport as well as 

education of youth through sport and to dedicate its efforts to ensuring that, 
in sport, the spirit of fair play prevails and violence is banned; 

To encourage and support the organization, development and coordi
nation of sport and sports competitions; 

To ensure the regular celebration of the Olympic Games; 
To cooperate with the competent public or private organizations and 

authorities in the endeavour to place sport at the service of humanity and 
thereby to promote peace; 

To take action in order to strengthen the unity and to protect the inde
pendence of the Olympic Movement; 

To act against any form of discrimination affecting the Olympic 

Movement; 

To encourage and support the promotion of women in sport at all le
vels and in all structures with a view to implementing the principle of equality of men and women; 

To lead the fight against doping in sport; 
To encourage and support measures protecting the health of athletes; 
To oppose any political or commercial abuse of sport and athletes; 
To encourage and support the development of sport for all; 
To encourage and support a responsible concern for environmental

issues, to promote sustainable development in sport and to require that the 
Olympic Games are held accordingly.

The members are volunteers who represent the IOC and Olympic 

Movement in their country (they are not delegates of their country within 
the IOC). New members are elected by the IOC Session. Each candidature 
file is analyzed by the IOC Nominations Commission, and then forwarded 
to the Executive Board. The latter submits its proposals to the Session, 
which elects new members by secret ballot. Since 12 December 1999, the 
number of members has been limited to 115, which includes a maximum of 
70 individual members, 15 active athletes, 15 representatives of the IFs, and 
15 representatives of the NOCs.

The term of office of members is unlimited for members elected before 

1966. An age limit has been set at 80 for the members elected between 
1967 and 1999, and at 70 for those whose election took place after 1999.

The President represents the IOC and presides over all its activities. He 

is elected by the Session. The members vote in a secret ballot. In the past 
unlimited, the length of the President‟s term of office is now fixed at eight 
years (entered into force 12 December 1999), renewable once for four years. 
Rule 20 of the Olympic Charter defines the role of the President, particularly his or her representation function. The IOC president, who is chosen by 
IOC members, is assisted by an executive board, several vice presidents, 
and a number of IOC commissions. The IOC's first president, Demetrius 
Vikélas of Greece (served 1894–1896), was succeeded by Coubertin himself 
(1896–1925). 

Juan Antonio Samaranch was the President of the IOC from 1980 to 

2001. The seventh President of the International Olympic Committee was 
born on 17 July 1920 in Barcelona (Spain). From the time he took up office, 
he tried to give a new direction to the Olympic Movement which was badly 
shaken by the political difficulties of the XXII Olympiad, and undertook a 
long voyage around the world to establish numerous contacts with Heads of 
State and sports leaders and to defend the Olympic cause. He secured the 
IOC's status as an international non-governmental organization and restructured its finances (television rights, sponsorship programmes). He kept the 
Olympic flame alive during the crisis years of boycotts (Moscow 1980 and 
Los Angeles 1984). It was through his efforts that the Olympic Museum 
was built in Lausanne (1993). 

When the IOC found itself in crisis, because of abuses of trust by some 

of its members, he undertook major reforms to the structure of the institution. Mr. Samaranch's mandate ended on 16 July 2001, in Moscow, where 
he was elected Honorary President. 

Jacques Rogge has been the President of the IOC since 2001. Born on 

2 May 1942 in Ghent, Belgium, Jacques Rogge is married and has two 
children. By profession, he is an orthopaedic surgeon. In the course of his 
sports career, he competed in the yachting competitions at the Games of the 
Olympiad in Mexico in 1968, Munich in 1972 and Montreal in 1976. He 
was also a member of the Belgian national rugby team. 

Jacques Rogge served as President of the Belgian National Olympic 

Committee from 1989 to 1992. He became President of the European 
Olympic Committees in 1989, IOC member in 1991 and Executive Board 
member in 1998. Jacques Rogge is the eighth IOC President, elected on 
16 July 2001 at the 112th IOC Session in Moscow.

The IOC elects host cities following a two-stage process. Cities wishing 

to stage the Games in question become 'Applicant Cities'; the IOC Execu
tive Board then selects a number of applicants to be considered 'Candidate 
Cities', from which one is chosen by a vote of the IOC session. In selecting 
the site of the Olympic Games, the IOC considers a number of factors, 
mainly among them is which city has, or promises to build, the best facilities, and which organizing committee seems most likely to stage the Games 
effectively as well as efficiently.
Answer the following questions:

1. What are the main functions of the International Olympic Commit
tee?

2. What are the basic principles of the Olympic Charter?
3. How are new members of the IOC elected? What is the maximum 

term of office of the IOC members?

4. Who has the highest position in the IOC? How is the leader of the or
ganization elected?

5. How does the IOC elect cities to host the Olympic Games?

Read the text about the OG ceremonies and mark the following 

statements True (T) or False (F). Then explain the words in bold.

1. Only the members of National Olympic Committees take part in the 

parade of nations.

2. During the parade the national team of the host country always enters 

the main stadium first.

3. The Olympic torch is usually delivered to the Host City by plane.
4. The President of the IOC declares the Olympic Games officially 

open.

5. During a medal ceremony the national anthem of the winner‟s coun
try is played.

6. The closing ceremony gives athletes a chance to break the ranks and 

mingle with each other.

Ceremonies

The Olympic Games have always included a number of ceremonies, 

many of which emphasize the themes of international friendship and peaceful co-operation. The opening ceremony has always included the parade of 
nations, in which the teams from each nation enter the main stadium as part 
of a procession. The Greek team always enters first, to "commemorate the 
ancient origins of the modern Games ", and the team of the host nation always enters last. The opening ceremony has evolved over the years into a 
complex extravaganza, with music, speeches, and pageantry.

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